Education Charter International


CCLP Worldwide enters into academic co-operation treaty with University Consortium Euroamerican
05/20/2010, 2:08 pm
Filed under: World

The International Council of CCLP Worldwide has signed the treaty of academic, cultural and technical co-operation with one of the largest consortium of Universities in Spain and Europe having presence in Latin America “University Consortium Euroamerican”

Under the treaty of co-operation it has been agreed to
That this Agreement has been promoted by both institutions on the basis that:
a. – Both institutions are united by shared objectives in the scientific and cultural development worldwide.
b. – The two institutions, in fact, promote the exchange of information, scientific and cultural cooperation to improve to a better global character education, and share common objectives in promoting coordination, scientific, education, higher education advice university.
c. – Both institutions have legal personality, allowing them to enter into agreements of this nature for the better achievement of the objectives assigned to them.
d. – Both institutions are interested in encouraging international cooperation based on equality and mutual assistance.
e).- The agreement allows CUE to use the word “technical and academic co-operation with the International Organization-CCLP worldwide” and allows global Civil Society –CCLP Worldwide for use ‘in the technical and academic cooperation with CUE “with the permission of using the corresponding logo in an appropriate place but not limited to website, desktop or publication.
f) The CCLP Worldwide adheres to the Charter of the CUE and CUE supports the Education Charter International.


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Congratulations, you have to wills to unite worldwide to walk together in the way, pushing the stones that prevent the entry of light, the light of understanding and words as the only tool to achieve a joint global action to increase the culture in the villages, and countries Unfortunately, it for our beloved blue planet, freer, more united and happy, and grate the quality of life and our world environmental and global citizenship, they deserve.
“Let us begin to work” to do together.

Comment by Jenaro Romero Pastor. Prof. MS.c. DS.c. Ph.D

METHODOLOGY: C.U.E
E-LEARNING-System programs distance learning and study of (Distance Learning) are a method completely personalized on-line, establishing a proper process of adaptation for each student, according to their individual needs. The methods of study “on-line” based on the interaction between students and teachers, through technological aids used in e-learning. Thus, the relationship with the Department of Education is made using Moodle by students and tutors and coordinator of monitoring, email or chat, ect. Thanks to these tools of ICT technologies, you can perform the work and tests that are proposed. This methodology can be used on semi-face mode as distance learning. The use of video-conferencing, radio, television or multimedia materials complement the methodologies used in this system for exchanging information between the teaching staff and students. The method involves sending the material home or through ordinary mail, fax or email. From there, the return of the work and correction of exercises by the teacher or guardian and returned to the student are the same system or media. Remote evaluation as to the methodology for the evaluation of the study, each teaching unit (Area) the student must make a report tracking test – a test of exactly 35 pages sent by email or fax to the Department of Education headquarters CUE, which assesses and corrects, and later returned with the appropriate rating, comments, tips and corrections in the so-called Control Evaluation. Also, the student must perform a final exam, taking into account your final grade all the exercises and papers presented over this. ADVANTAGES By means of this system can make full course of studies at a distance, and / or through the platform Moodle, so you do not have to attend classes, to travel outside their place of residence, much less leave the country to obtain the certificate and / or corresponding qualifications, offering the opportunity to study in short periods of time, making it compatible with his professional activity or other, depending only on the intensity with which you develop the studies. Therefore, this system enables the virtual universities, virtual campuses and / or Virtual Classroom e-Learning of the entities belonging to the CUE offers numerous advantages, including:
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 Evaluation and validation of all his studies and until the date of enrollment in the program you selected. Preparation of each course and program according to your needs and time available. Develop studies completely in Spanish. The manuals, texts, videos, and computer materials are carefully selected from the best literature for the area of study chosen. Each student has appropriately qualified tutors, lecturers and professors, specialists in the fields, which resolve all inquiries and questions the student’s academic, by phone, fax, mail, electronic mail (email) for Moodle platform, etc … . The academic assessments or tests are performed from the student’s own home, including the final exam, except in some countries it takes place in the headquarters of each of our delegations, under the supervision and direction professors, teachers, or persons duly authorized. CONVENTIONS collaborative agreements, certification, accreditation and cultural exchanges with universities, training centers and professional organizations, allows integrated college in CUE, offer many advantages, including: Ability to continue their studies or conduct graduate courses in any country. Recognition and international professional empowerment through partnership with organizations that have integrated with Universities CUE. Possibility of issue, approval or ratification of qualifications for any of the universities, training centers and professional organizations that have agreements with Integrated Centers and Universities in CUE. Application for Apostille of The Hague, at most international university recognition, by validating and confirming its title, in any country, according to international standards. The methodology LEARNING-SYSTEM is based on a distance learning system within the framework of the European Higher Education Area and the use of information technology for the transmission of knowledge through ICT Moodle platform. The pedagogical basis on which our University Consortium are based distance learning art or e-learning,
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conception of its educational offerings tailored to the social and employment-based learning skills and motivation to learn. The system of education centers and universities linked to the CUE is closely linked to the knowledge society. A system of continuous assessment and the use of technological and pedagogical tools allow us to develop an active methodology that helps our students to “learn by doing pedagogically procedures designed to accumulate knowledge and pass the proposed tests, learning.” The teaching-learning process is developed through the Virtual Classroom with Moodle platform and based on the Open University system. Our students can establish direct communication with their teachers through the forums, telephone and telematics complementary tools that allow real-time communication. The performance of teachers as “teachers-tutors and doctoral degrees in their areas of competence”, the completion of a detailed academic supervision and customization of the teaching action are the universities and virtual campuses of the University Consortium Euro-American one genuine learning community focused on people. Planning Each unit of study and / or module has its own educational planning which provides the teacher according to the characteristics of the curriculum in question and the methodology of the CUE. Such planning is contained in the schedules of didactic activities of the Teachers’ Guides and units of study subjects registered and part of the various modules as well as in the Virtual Classroom Schedule since the beginning of the study period until the end of the . A practical information that allows the student the personal study planning, compliance with the objectives of learning and improvement of the curriculum, whether, own, and depending on their level academic achievement. Contents
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The manual of learning materials associated with the various units of study, modules and / or subjects are written by renowned authors in the academic field in different areas of knowledge. These contents are supplemented significantly with the ability to query databases, bibliographies and digital library collections of our documentary project. Evaluation of Learning Activities assessment system CUE learning is continuous and is based on the realization of different types of learning activities. 1. Learning activities: evidence-based assessment collective generation of knowledge. 2. Self-Assessment Test: tests on-line interactive assessment. 3. Continuous Assessment Activities: scenarios and case studies, information retrieval work, conduct and reporting. 4. Review to challenge way: face. Continuous assessment provides teachers with information that allows action to improve and reorient the learning process greatly facilitating the academic performance of students.  Activities The educational activities are assessment tests based on the Information Society and Higher Educational Area Europe. To develop them, providing for the acquisition of generic skills such as teamwork, collective generation of knowledge, skill in written and oral expression, and interaction with the content of training, the teacher and among students. PLAN FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS AND UNIVERSITIES INCORPORATED IN VIRTUAL (CUE)
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The Academic Plan Reference (CUE) in view of the future, is adapted to the Bologna Agreement, based on the system of credit transfer of the European Community (ECTS), developed by the EEC Commission that provides common procedures to guarantee academic recognition of studies and may transfer these credits from one institution to another. ECTS – European Credit Transfer and accumulation of credits What is a credit system? A credit system is a systematic way of describing an educational program by attaching credits to its components. The definition of credits in higher education systems may be based on different parameters, such as student workload, courses and training objectives, learning outcomes and contact hours. What is ECTS? The European Credit Transfer and accumulation of credits (ECTS) is a student-centered system, which is based on the student workload required to achieve the objectives of a program. These objectives preferably specified in terms of learning outcomes and competences to be acquired. How did ECTS develop? ECTS was introduced in 1989 under the Erasmus program, now part of Socrates. It is the only credit system which has been tested and successfully used throughout Europe. Was initially set for the transfer of revenues The system facilitated the recognition of periods of study abroad, thus increasing the quality and volume of student mobility in Europe. Why introduce ECTS? ECTS makes study programs easy to read and compare for all students, both local and foreign facilitates mobility and academic recognition helps universities to organize and revise their curricula, can be used for various programs and types of teaching, and makes European higher education more attractive to students from other continents. What are the key features of ECTS?  ECTS is based on the convention that 60 credits measure the workload of a full time student during one academic year. The workload for a student in a course syllabus
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full-time equivalent, in most cases, 1,500 or 1,800 hours per year and in such cases one credit represents 25 to 30 hours. 24 .- Credits or Specialist. 36 .- Credits or Expert. or Diploma (Bachelor) .- 180 Credits. 35 .- Credits or Master. or Degree Graduate Credits .- 240. 70 .- Superior or Master Credit. or PhD .- 120 Credits.  In the ECTS, credits are only available once you have completed the work required and appropriate assessment has been learning. Credit is also a way to measure learning outcomes. Learning outcomes are sets of competences, expressing what students know, understand or be able to do after completing a learning process, short or long. The student workload in ECTS consists of the time spent in attending lectures, seminars, study, preparation and testing, etc … Credits are allocated to all educational components of a curriculum (as modules, courses, placements, dissertation work). The credits reflect the quantity of work each component requires in relation to the total volume of work necessary to complete a full course of study. The results of the student is documented by a note. It is good practice to add an ECTS grade, especially in case of transfer of credits. On the scale of ECTS grades, the results of the students are graded on a statistical basis. Therefore, statistical data on student performance is a prerequisite for applying the ECTS grading system. Grades are assigned among students who pass as follows: A best 10% B next 25% C next 30% D next 25% the remaining 10% E A distinction is made between the grades “FX” and “F ‘, which are assigned to students who fail. “FX” means: “Suspense – It takes a bit more work to pass” and “F” means: “Suspense – is required to pass a great job.” The inclusion of failure rates in the transcript is optional.
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What is the Supplement to Diploma? The Diploma Supplement (DS) is a document attached to a higher education diploma providing a standardized description of the nature, level, context, content and status of the studies pursued and successfully completed by the graduate. The supplement provides transparency and facilitates academic and professional recognition of qualifications (diplomas, degrees, certificates, etc. ….). Shall be granted Diploma Supplement mention the institutions that grant a Diploma Supplement to all graduates of all programs leading to a bachelor’s first and second cycles, in accordance with the structure and the recommendations.  Self Each subject and / or module has an associated testing on-line assessment test such that, as a self-test questionnaires, allow students to verify the knowledge acquired after studying the learning units concerned. These educational activities are interactive and allow the results obtained in real time encouraging self-learning and the acquisition of key concepts. Continuous Assessment Such educational activities are assessment tests practical. Evaluation activities are considered Continuous practical cases, works based on the search for information, conduct and reporting. To realize this, students have many resources in the Virtual Classroom. Such activities, at the discretion of the teacher may ask for individual development and / or groups. Conditioned face tests to challenge courses to challenge tests and courses are mandatory attendance. This type of screening test helps verify compliance with the planned learning objectives in each subject and / or Module. The test models will be developed by the respective teachers and approved by the President, Deans or Directors of the educational institutions of Euro-American University Consortium (CUE).
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Face examination will last approximately two hours per subject and / or module and will be held in the cities designated in each case the student must submit at the end a final paper. If a student does not appear or fails the final exam in person, at regular calls available, may be examined in the “extraordinary call” to be held in the month to determine the presidency and there is a single date for each course and / or module. Learning Resources In-edu we have a team and a technology that enables us to develop our own methodology and create a sense of belonging to the learning community. Our Virtual Classrooms are MOODLE technology. A teaching-learning environment on-line used by OPEN UNIVERSITY, and most of the universities with virtual campus. The Learning Community Education Channel
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Campus SeconLife

Mi regards
Jenaro Romero Pastor
Coordinador General Académico (C.U.E)

Comment by Jenaro Romero Pastor. Prof. MS.c. DS.c. Ph.D

CUE: EUROAMERICAN UNIVERSITY CONSORTIUM
Secondments

Maintains assignment, delegation and representing the following institutions:

• UOA Orthodox University of the Americas (USA).
• USA Apostles College and Seminary of the Americas (USA).
• Middle East American AMU University (USA).
• PUA Peoples University of the Americas (USA).
• University UEP of the European Peoples (USA).
• Virtual VAU American International University (USA).
• OUS of Advanced Sciences, Open University (EU)
• Free School FAP parascientists Studies (USA).
• USE University of High Studies for Excellence (USA).
• S.L.I.B.C. Sri Lanka Investing Business Consulting.
• BAS Bulgarian Academy of Science (U.S.)
• Universidad La Gran Colombia
• National University of Piura UNP
• PUA Peoples University of the Americas (USA)
• International CEAS.

RECOGNITION

• Spanish Association of Holistic Medicine (U.S.).
• International Association of Development of Vanguard Sciences (U.S.).
• Diplomatic Correspondent Peace and Health Naturopaths Without Borders (EU).
• Delle Medicine Mondiale Organizzazione OMMN naturalization (EU).
• Für Europäische Aktion Therapiefreiheit, Rect. Auf Gesundheid. (EU).
• CUE Euro-American University Consortium. (EU)
• General Practitioners Register of the European Union. (EU)
• Organization of Natural Medecine Word Practitioners. (USA)
• Apostolic Educational Foundation of the Americas. (USA)
• Orthodox University Foundation
• Apostolic Movement of the Americas. (USA)
• Orthodox Church in the Caribbean. (USA)
• Euro-American Martial Arts Association (EU)
• ADIPACUL Diplomatic Academy of Peace, Health and Culture. (EU)
• ESGEM School of Management. (EU)
• AECED European Association of Distance Education Centres (EU)
• ACEL Adult Training Board and Experimental (USA)

CONVENTIONS
S.L.I.B.C. Sri Lanka Investing Business Consulting
Bulgarian Academy of Science USA
Universidad La Gran Colombia
Universidad Nacional de Piura
Peoples University of the Americas
Worldwide CCLP
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Comment by Jenaro Romero Pastor. Prof. MS.c. DS.c. Ph.D

WITNESS
ASSUME THE CHARTER OF THE WORLD OF EDUCATION
Introduction
When you start with 3-4 years of a child to feel and have certain stimuli around you, especially if your father is a teacher, like mine.
D. José Romero Ruiz, Alferez of culture, and democratic socialist left, and your uncle died in the postwar master to defend freedom, culture, justice, universal education for all citizens of the world, it is easy to have a vocation, and altruistically take
And vocation of service to others the art of education, as an honor and goal for your life today after giving and sharing my knowledge of hundreds of people spread around the world for many years, I find myself happy to give what the great teacher Jesus told us and left us to “teach the ignorant”
My mother, God rest his soul, told me son, your father, your uncle is dedicated to teaching others, learn child so that you too can do the same.
And one day I said, but remember Gennaro, one thing “if nothing much you know and share anything you”
I have never forgotten and neck and never forget.
It was a great honor to take my letter and make education for all the dumb.
May God bless all who are dedicated to fulfilling the good fortune to teach the ignorant, then, makes us free education.

Comment by Jenaro Romero Pastor. Prof. MS.c. DS.c. Ph.D

QUALITY AND HIGHER EDUCATION

CCLP WORLDWIDE
INTRODUCTION
“Those who assume the Education International Charter is a declaration of fundamental principles for building a just, sustainable, educated youth of the global society for the 21st century. Created by global civil society CCLP worldwide, backed by thousands of members, volunteers, organizations and institutions and individuals committed to supporting the youth of the Charter is not simply a call to action, but a motivating force inspiring change the world. The international menu is being practiced prepared statement higher education for the 21st century by UNESCO, ten principles of Global Compact and the Declaration of Higher Education for more sustainable livelihoods. ” The International Bill of Education is widely recognized, global consensus statement on ethics and values for a sustainable future. Developed over a period of ten years, what has been called the global consultation process ever associated with broader international declaration, the Charter of Education has been formally endorsed by over 2000 organizations and individuals around the world

1. WORLD DECLARATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION
IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: VISION AND ACTION
PREAMBLE
At the turn of the century, there is a demand for higher education record, accompanied by a great diversity of it, and greater awareness of the fundamental importance of this education has for sociocultural and economic development and building the future, in which the younger generations will be equipped with new skills, knowledge and ideals. Higher education includes “all types of studies, training or research training in postsecondary education, provided by universities or other educational institutions that are accredited by the competent authorities of higher education as” *. Higher education faces everywhere challenges and difficulties related to funding, equal access to studies and in the course of the same, better staff training, the competency-based training, upgrading and preserving the quality of teaching, research and services, the relevance of the curriculum, the employment opportunities of graduates to establish effective cooperation agreements and equal access to benefits of international cooperation . Higher education should address both the challenges posed by new technologies open up opportunities that improve the way we produce, organize, disseminate and manage knowledge and access to it. Must be guaranteed equal access to these technologies at all levels of education systems.
The second half of this century will go down in history of higher education as the period of its most spectacular expansion worldwide, the number of admissions has increased more than six between 1960 (13 million) and 1995 (82 million). But it is also the time that has further exacerbated the disparity, which was enormous, from the industrially developed countries, developing countries and in particular the least developed countries as regards access to higher education and research and resources available. It was also an era of greater economic stratification and widening gap in educational opportunity within countries themselves, even in some of the most developed and richest. If no higher education institutions and research appropriate to form a critical mass of skilled and educated people, no country can ensure genuine endogenous and sustainable in developing countries and poor countries, in particular, can not reduce the distance that separates them from the industrialized developed countries. Knowledge sharing, international cooperation and new technologies can offer new opportunities to reduce this disparity.
Higher education has given ample proof of its viability over the centuries and its ability to change and bring about change and progress of society. Given the scope and pace of change, society tends to increasingly rely on knowledge, reason that higher education and research now form a fundamental part of cultural, socio-economic and ecologically sustainable individuals, communities and nations. Consequently, and given that it has to face imposing challenges, higher education itself has to initiate the transformation and radical renewal has ever had to go, so that contemporary society, which is currently experiencing a deep crisis values, can transcend mere economic considerations and incorporate deeper dimensions of morality and spirituality.
In an attempt to find solutions to these challenges and implement a process of profound reform of higher education, UNESCO has convened a World Conference on Higher Education in the Twenty-first Century: Vision and action. As part of preparations for the Conference, UNESCO published in 1995, its Policy Paper for Change and Development in Higher Education. Subsequently Five regional consultations (Havana, November 1996, Dakar, April 1997, Tokyo, July 1997, Palermo, September 1997, and Beirut, March 1998). In this Declaration are duly taken into account, without losing sight of the character of each document, the Declarations and Plans of Action adopted at these meetings, which are attached to it, and the entire process of reflection in preparation World Conference.
We, participants at the World Conference on Higher Education, meeting from 5 to 9 October 1998 at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris
Recalling the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,
Recalling the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in particular, paragraph 1 of Article 26, which states that “everyone has the right to education” and that “access to higher education is equal for all, depending of merit “, and endorsing the basic principles of the Convention on the fight against Discrimination in Education (1960), under which Article 4, States Parties undertake to” make accessible to all equal total and according to individual capacity, higher education, ”
Taking into account the recommendations relating to higher education made by large committees and conferences, such as the International Commission on Education for the XXI Century, the World Commission on Culture and Development, 44th and 45th meetings of the International Conference Education (Geneva, 1994 and 1996), the resolutions adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO at its 27th and 29th sessions, in particular regarding the Recommendation concerning the status of teachers in higher education, the World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990), the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), the Conference on Academic Freedom and University Autonomy (Sinaia, 1992), the World Conference Human Rights (Vienna, 1993), the World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen, 1995), the Fourth United Nations Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995), the Second International Congress on Education and Informatics (Moscow, 1996), World Congress on Higher Education and Human Resources Development in the Twenty-First Century (Manila, 1997), the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Hamburg, 1997) and, in particular, the Agenda for the Future, in which topic 2 (Improving the conditions and quality of adult education) states that: “… We are committed to open schools, colleges and universities to adult learners … asking the World Conference [on] Higher Education (Paris, 1998) to promote the transformation of institutions of higher education in institutions of continuing education, and to define the role of universities, ”
Convinced that education is one of the fundamental human rights, democracy, sustainable development and peace, so it should be available to everyone throughout life, and that measures are needed to ensure coordination and cooperation between sectors and within each one of them and, in particular, between general education, technical and vocational secondary levels and between universities, colleges and technical institutions,
Whereas, in this context, the solution of problems in this regard in the twenty-first century will be determined by the breadth of our future society and the role to be assigned to education in general and education higher in particular
Aware that, on the threshold of a new millennium, higher education must take precedence values and ideals of a culture of peace, and has to mobilize the international community to this end,
Whereas a substantial transformation and expansion of higher education, improving quality and relevance and how to solve the main difficulties which assail the strong demands participation not only of governments and institutions of higher education, but also all stakeholders, including students and their families, teachers, business and industry, public and private sectors of the economy, parliaments, media, community, professional associations and society, and also require that institutions of higher education to assume greater responsibility towards society and accountability on the use of public resources and private, national or international
Emphasizing that higher education systems should: enhance their ability to live in the midst of uncertainty, to change and bring about change, to meet social needs and promoting solidarity and equality, preserve and exercise scientific rigor and originality with spirit of impartiality, as a prerequisite for attaining and sustaining an indispensable level of quality, and placing students in the forefront of their concerns at the prospect of learning throughout life so that they can integrate fully in the global knowledge society of the next century,
Considering that cooperation and exchange are major avenues for advancing higher education throughout the world,
Proclaim the following:
MISSIONS AND FUNCTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Section 1. The mission of education, training and research
We reaffirm the need to preserve, strengthen and further promote the mission and values of higher education, in particular the mission to contribute to sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole, namely:
a) educate highly qualified graduates and responsible citizens able to meet the needs of all aspects of human activity, by offering relevant qualifications up to modern times, including professional training, which combine theoretical knowledge and high-level practical courses and programs that are constantly adapted to the present and future needs of society;
b) be an open space to higher education that encourages lifelong learning, offering an excellent range of options and the possibility of entry and exit points of the system, and opportunities for individual achievement and social mobility in order to train citizens to participate actively in society and are open to the world and to promote the strengthening of endogenous capacities and consolidation on a framework of justice for human rights, sustainable development, democracy and peace;
c) promote, generate and disseminate knowledge through research and as part of the services to be provided to the community, provide the relevant expertise to contribute to the cultural, social and economic development of societies, promoting and developing scientific and technological research on par with research in the social sciences, humanities and creative arts;
d) help understand, interpret, preserve, enhance, promote and disseminate national and regional cultures, international and historical, in a context of pluralism and cultural diversity;
e) help protect and strengthen the values of society, ensuring instill in youth the values basis of democratic citizenship and by providing critical and detached perspectives to foster debate on policy options and strengthening humanistic perspectives;
f) contribute to the development and improvement of education at all levels, particularly through training of teachers.
Article 2. Ethical role, autonomy, responsibility and foresight
In accordance with the Recommendation concerning the status of teachers in higher education adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in November 1997, higher education institutions, staff and students should:
a) preserve and develop their crucial functions, all its activities to the demands of ethics and scientific and intellectual rigor;
b) an opinion on the ethical, cultural and social, with full autonomy and full responsibility, because it provided a kind of intellectual authority that society needs to help to reflect, understand and act;
c) strengthening their critical and forward through the ongoing analysis of new social trends, economic, cultural and political roles to play that way center forecasting, warning and prevention;
d) use its intellectual and moral prestige to defend and actively disseminate universally accepted values, and in particular peace, justice, freedom, equality and solidarity, as has been enshrined in the Constitution of UNESCO;
e) enjoy full academic freedom and autonomy, conceived as a set of rights and obligations while remaining fully accountable to society and accountable;
f) to contribute to the definition and treatment of problems affecting the welfare of communities, nations and global society.
FORGING A NEW VISION OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Article 3. Equal access
a) In accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, access to higher education should be based on merit, ability, effort, perseverance and determination of applicants and, perspective of education throughout life, may occur at any age, taking due account of previously acquired skills. Consequently, access to higher education may not permit any discrimination based on race, sex, language, religion or economic, cultural or social, or physical disabilities.
b) Equity in access to higher education should begin with the reinforcement and, if necessary, a reordering of its links with all levels of education, and more particularly with secondary education. The institutions of higher education should be considered components of a seamless system that should also contribute and should encourage, that starts with early childhood education and primary education and continues throughout life. The higher education institutions must work in close partnership with parents, schools, students and socioeconomic groups and elected bodies. Secondary education should not only qualified candidates access to higher education by developing the ability to learn in general, but also prepare them for active life by providing training on a wide range of professions. However, access to higher education should remain open to any person who has completed high school education or its equivalent or meets the necessary conditions, as far as possible, regardless of age and without any discrimination.
c. Therefore, the rapid and large increase in demand for higher education requires, where applicable, any policy of access to that preference be given to merit-based approach, as defined in Article 3 a) above .
d. Must be actively facilitated access to higher education for members of certain groups such as indigenous peoples, cultural and linguistic minorities, disadvantaged groups, peoples living under occupation and those with disabilities, as these groups, both collectively and individually, may have both experience and talent that can be very valuable for the development of societies and nations. Special material help and educational solutions can help overcome the obstacles faced by these groups both to access to higher education to conduct studies at this level.
Article 4. Enhancing participation and promoting access of women
a) Although considerable progress has been made in improving women’s access to higher education in many parts of the world still remain various obstacles to socio-economic, cultural and political life that impede their full access and effective integration. Overcome them remains an urgent priority in the renewal process for ensuring an equitable higher education system and non-discriminatory, based on the principle of merit.
b) Further efforts are required to eliminate all gender stereotyping in higher education, taking into account the gender perspective in the various disciplines and to consolidate the qualitative participation of women at all levels and disciplines that are underrepresented, and to enhance their active participation in decision-making.
c) The encouragement of gender studies (or studies related to women) as a specific field that has a strategic role in transforming higher education and society.
d) We must strive to eliminate political and social barriers that make women are underrepresented, and in particular, promote the active participation of women in the levels of policy development and decision-making, both in higher education and in society.
Article 5. Advancing knowledge through research in the fields of science, art and humanities and the dissemination of results
a) The advancement of knowledge through research is an essential function of all systems of higher education have a duty to promote postgraduate studies. Should promote and strengthen innovation, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity in the programs, and establish long-term guidance on the objectives and social and cultural needs. It should establish a proper balance between basic research and target-oriented.
b) Institutions should ensure that all members of the academic community engaged in research receive training, resources and support. The intellectual and cultural rights arising from research findings should be used for the benefit of humanity and protected to prevent misuse.
c) Increase research in all disciplines, including social sciences and humanities, the sciences of education (including research on higher education), engineering, natural sciences, mathematics, computer science and the arts, in the framework of national, regional and international research and development. Of particular importance is the promotion of research capacity in institutions of higher education with research functions because when higher education and research are conducted at a high level within the same institution achieves a mutual enhancement of quality . These institutions should find the necessary material and financial support of public and private sources.
Article 6. Long-term orientation based on relevance
a) The relevance of higher education should be assessed in terms of the fit between what society expects of institutions and what they do. This requires ethical standards, political impartiality, critical capacities and at the same time, a better articulation with the problems of society and the world of work, basing long-term orientations on societal aims and needs, including respect for cultures and environmental protection. The aim is to facilitate access to a broad general education, as well as specialized education and for certain careers, often interdisciplinary, focusing on skills and abilities, as both prepare individuals to live in different situations and to change activities .
b) Higher education should reinforce its role of serving society, especially its efforts to eradicate poverty, intolerance, violence, illiteracy, hunger, environmental degradation and disease, mainly through interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach to analyze the problems and issues raised.
c) Higher education should enhance its contribution to the development of the whole education system, notably through improved teacher training, development of curricula and research on education.
d) Ultimately, higher education should aim to create a new non-violent society and it is non-exploitative society consisting of highly educated, motivated and integrated individuals, inspired by love for humanity and guided by wisdom .
Article 7. Strengthening cooperation with the world of work and analysis and forecasting needs of society
a) In an economic context marked by change and the emergence of new production paradigms based on knowledge and its applications, as well as data processing, should be strengthened and renewed links between higher education, the world of work and other sectors of society.
b) Links with the world of work can be strengthened through the participation of their representatives on the governing boards of institutions, the intensification of the use by teachers and students at the national and international levels of learning opportunities combining work and study and work, exchange of personnel between the world of work and higher education institutions and the revision of curricula that are suited to professional practices.
c) As a permanent source of training and retraining, institutions of higher education should systematically take into account the trends that occur in the workplace and in the scientific, technological and economic. To meet the demands of work in the field of higher education systems and the world of work should jointly develop and assess learning processes, bridging programs and programs for assessing and recognizing prior learning, which integrate theory and job training. In the context of their anticipatory function, higher education institutions could contribute to fostering job creation, although that is not the only end in itself.
d) Learning to undertake and promote the spirit of initiative should become major concerns of higher education to facilitate employment opportunities for graduates who will increasingly be called upon to create jobs and not simply look . The institutions of higher education should provide students the opportunity to fully develop their own abilities with a sense of social responsibility, educating them to become actively involved in democratic society and promote changes that will foster equity and justice.
Article 8. Diversification for enhanced equity of opportunity
a) Diversifying higher education models and modalities and criteria for recruitment is essential to meet the international trend of mass demand while providing access to different modes of education and expanding access to public groups increasingly diverse, with a view to education throughout life, which means they can enter the higher education system and out of it easily.
b) A higher education systems more diverse by new types of tertiary institutions: public, private and nonprofit, among others. These institutions must offer a wide range of education and training opportunities: traditional degrees, short courses, part-time studies, flexible schedules, modularized courses, supported distance learning, etc.
Article 9. Innovative educational approaches: critical thinking and creativity
a) In a rapidly changing world, we see the need for a new vision and a new model of higher education, which should be student-centered, which requires, in most countries, reforms in depth and open access policy to cater for categories of increasingly diverse, as well as new content, methods, practices and means of transmitting knowledge, which must be based on new types of links and partnerships with the community and with the broadest sectors of society.
b) Institutions of higher education should train students to become citizens well informed and deeply motivated, equipped with a critical sense, capable of analyzing social problems, finding solutions to those problems of society, apply them and accept social responsibilities.
c) To achieve these objectives, it may be necessary to recast curricula, using new and appropriate methods to go beyond cognitive mastery of disciplines should facilitate access to new pedagogical approaches and teaching and promoted in order to facilitate the acquisition of practical knowledge, skills and communication skills, creative and critical analysis, independent thinking and teamwork in multicultural contexts, where creativity also involves combining theoretical knowledge and traditional or local science and technology vanguard. These recast curricula should take into consideration issues related to the differences between men and women, as well as the cultural, historic and economic of each country. The teaching of the rules on human rights and education on the needs of communities around the world should be reflected in the curricula of all disciplines, particularly those preparing for business. Academic personnel should play a decisive role in defining the curriculum.
d) New teaching methods should also provide new educational materials. These should be coupled with new methods of examination, that test not only memory but also powers of comprehension, skills for practical work and creativity.
Article 10. The staff and students as major actors of higher education
a) An essential element of higher education institutions is a vigorous policy of staff training. It should establish clear guidelines for teachers in higher education, which should target especially today, to teach their students to learn and take initiatives rather than being exclusively founts of knowledge. Adequate arrangements should be in research, as well as updating and improving their teaching skills through appropriate training of staff, encouraging constant innovation in curriculum and methods of teaching and learning, and ensure professional conditions appropriate financial and teachers to ensure excellence in research and teaching, and in reflecting the provisions of the Recommendation concerning the status of teachers in higher education adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO November 1997. To that end, more importance should be given to international experience. Moreover, given the role of higher education in lifelong learning should be viewed as experience outside the institutions as a relevant qualification to join the staff of higher education.
b) All institutions of higher education should establish clear guidelines, preparing teachers of early childhood, primary and secondary education, encouraging constant innovation in curriculum, best practices in teaching methods and a clear understanding of various types of learning. It is essential to have a trained administrative and technical staff in an appropriate manner.
c) Those responsible for decision-making at national and institutional levels should place students and their needs at the center of their concerns, and consider them as major partners and responsible stakeholders in the renewal of higher education. This should include the participation of students in matters related to this teaching, the evaluation, the renovation of teaching methods and programs and in the existing institutional framework in policy making and management establishments. To the extent that students have the right to organize and represent themselves, should ensure its involvement in these issues.
d) should be developed guidance services to facilitate the transition of secondary students to higher education, whatever their age, and to take into account the needs of ever more diversified categories of learners. We must take into account the needs, not only those entering higher education from schools or after-school establishments, but also the needs of those who leave school or returning in a lifelong learning process. This support is important if students are to adapt to the course, reducing drop-out. Students who drop out should have suitable opportunities to return to higher education if he sees fit and when they see fit.
FROM VISION TO ACTION
Article 11. Quality assessment
a) The quality of higher education is a multidimensional concept and should embrace all its functions and activities: teaching and academic programs, research and scholarship, staff, students, buildings, facilities, equipment and services to the community and the academic world. Internal self-evaluation and external review, conducted openly by independent experts, if possible specialized in international, are essential to improving quality. Independent national bodies should be created and designed comparative standards of quality, recognized internationally. In order to take into account diversity and to avoid uniformity, due attention should be paid to the specific institutional contexts, national and regional levels. Stakeholders should be an integral part of institutional assessment.
b) Quality also requires that higher education is characterized by its international dimension: exchange of knowledge, interactive networking, mobility of teachers and students and international research projects, even when taking due account of the values cultural and national situations.
c) To achieve and maintain the quality of national, regional or international level, certain elements are especially important, notably careful selection of staff and continuous staff development, particularly through the promotion of appropriate curricula for academic staff, including methodology of learning process, and mobility between countries and institutions of higher education and between institutions of higher education and the world of work, and the mobility of students in each country and between countries. New information technologies are an important tool in this process because of its impact on the acquisition of knowledge and skills.
Article 12. The potential and challenges of technology
The rapid advances in new information technologies and communication will change the way development, acquisition and transmission of knowledge. It is also important to note that new technologies offer opportunities to innovate on course content and teaching methods, and broaden access to higher education. Do not forget, however, that the new information technology does not make teachers are no longer necessary, but changes its role in relation to the learning process and that the ongoing dialogue that converts information into knowledge and understanding becomes fundamental. The higher education institutions have to lead by example in terms of exploiting the advantages and potential of new information technologies and communication, ensuring quality and maintaining high standards in practices and outcomes of education, with a spirit of openness, equity and international cooperation in the following ways:
a) build networks, technology transfer, training human resources, develop teaching materials and sharing the experiences of applying these technologies to education, training and research, allowing everyone access to knowledge;
b) create new learning environments, ranging from distance education services to establishments and “virtual” systems of higher education, capable of bridging the gap and establish systems for quality education, thereby fostering the social and economic progress democratization as well as other important social priorities, however, must ensure that the operation of these virtual education, created from regional, continental or global networks, function in a way that respects cultural and social identities;
c) take full advantage of information technology and communication in education, while striving to redress the gross inequalities between countries and within them in regard to access to new information technologies and communication and the production of relevant resources;
d) adapting ICT to national and local needs, ensuring that technical systems, educational, institutional and managerial support them;
e) facilitating, through international cooperation, identification of objectives and interests of all countries, especially developing countries, equitable access to infrastructure in this area and strengthening and dissemination of such technology throughout the society;
f) follow closely the evolution of the knowledge society to ensure the maintenance of a high level of quality and equitable regulations for access;
g) taking into account the new possibilities created by the use of information technologies and communication, it is important to note that at all, institutions of higher education that use these technologies to modernize their work rather than to transform them premises real to virtual institutions.
Article 13. Strengthen the management and financing of higher education
a) The management and financing of higher education require the development of skills and appropriate strategies for planning and policy analysis, based on partnerships established between higher education and national planning and coordination to secure appropriately streamlined management and a healthy use of resources. The establishments of higher education should adopt management practices with a future perspective that meets the needs of their environments. Administrators of higher education must be responsive, competent and able to evaluate regularly, by internal and external mechanisms, the effectiveness of procedures and administrative rules.
b) Institutions of higher education should be free to manage its internal affairs, but such autonomy must be accompanied by the obligation to present a clear and transparent accounting to the authorities, the parliament, the learners and society as a whole .
• The ultimate aim of management should be to enhance the institutional mission by ensuring education, training and excellent research, and services to the community. This objective requires governance that combines social vision, including understanding of global issues, with efficient managerial skills. The role of leadership in higher education is therefore a major social responsibility and may be significantly strengthened through dialogue with all involved in it, particularly with teachers and students. Bearing in mind the need to keep within reasonable limits the size of the governing bodies of institutions of higher education, mandatory participation of academics in these organs in the existing institutional framework.
• It is essential to encourage North-South cooperation to achieve financing for strengthening higher education in developing countries.
Article 14. The funding of higher education as public service
The funding of higher education requires both public and private resources. The state retains a key role in the financing.
a) The diversification of funding sources reflects the support that society provides to it and must be further strengthened to ensure the development of this type of education, to increase their efficiency and maintain its quality and relevance. Public support for higher education and research remains essential to ensure that educational and social missions are carried out in a balanced manner.
b) Society as a whole must support education at all levels, including higher education, given its role in promoting economic development, social and cultural development. Mobilization for this purpose depends on public awareness and participation of the public, private and public sectors of the economy, parliaments, the media, the government and nongovernmental organizations, students and facilities , families and all social actors involved in higher education.
Article 15. Pooling knowledge and skills between countries and continents
a) The principle of solidarity and true partnership between higher education institutions worldwide is crucial for education and training in all areas help to better understand global issues, the role of democratic governance and qualified human resources in their resolution, and the need to live together with different cultures and values. The practice of multilingualism, teacher exchange programs and student and institutional linkages to promote intellectual and scientific cooperation should be an integral part of all higher education systems.
b) Principles of international cooperation based on solidarity, recognition and mutual support, true partnership which results in an equitable way for the benefit of all stakeholders and the importance of sharing knowledge and skills level should govern international relations between institutions of higher education in developed and developing countries, particularly for the benefit of LDCs. Should take into account the need to safeguard institutional capacities in higher education in the regions in situations of conflict or natural disasters. Therefore, the international dimension should permeate the curriculum and the teaching and learning.
c) There should ratify and implement regional and international legal instruments concerning the recognition of studies, including those relating to the approval of knowledge, skills and abilities of graduates, in order to allow students to change courses more easily and increasing mobility within and between national systems.
Article 16. From “brain drain” to return
It would be necessary to curb the “brain drain” and it continues to deprive developing countries and countries in transition, of high-level expertise necessary to accelerate socioeconomic progress. International cooperation programs should be based on relations of long-term collaboration between institutions in the South and the North and promote South-South cooperation. Priority should be given to training programs in developing countries organized centers of excellence in regional and international networks, together with specialized courses abroad and intensive, short-lived. Should be given to creating an environment conducive to attracting and retaining skilled human capital, through national policies or international agreements to facilitate the return, whether permanent or temporary, highly qualified specialists and researchers to their countries of origin. At the same time, we must encourage a process of brain gain ‘through collaboration programs that, through its international dimension, enhance the creation and strengthening of institutions and facilitate full use of endogenous capacities. The experience of the UNITWIN and UNESCO Chairs and the principles contained in the regional conventions on recognition of degrees and diplomas of higher education have, in this regard, special importance.
Article 17. Partnerships and alliances
Collaboration and partnerships among stakeholders (those responsible for national and institutional policies, faculty, researchers and students, and administrative and technical staff of institutions of higher education, labor and community groups) are a important factor in managing change. NGOs are key actors in this process. Therefore, the partnership based on common interest, mutual respect and credibility, should be a key to renewal in higher education.
We, participants at the World Conference on Higher Education, adopt this Declaration and reaffirm the right of everyone to education and the right of access to higher education on the basis of individual merit and capacity;
We commit ourselves to act together in the context of our individual and collective responsibility to take all measures necessary to realize the principles concerning higher education contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the fight against Discrimination in education;
We solemnly reaffirm our commitments to peace. We are determined to give top priority to education for peace and to participate in celebrating the International Year for the Culture of Peace in 2000;
We therefore adopt this World Declaration on Higher Education in the Twenty-first Century: Vision and Action. To achieve the goals enshrined in this Declaration and in particular to take measures without delay, we agree with the following Framework for Priority Action for Change and the Development of Higher Education.

FRAMEWORK FOR PRIORITY ACTION
FOR CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION

I. PRIORITY ACTIONS AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL
1. Member States, including their governments, parliaments and other authorities shall:
a) establish, where appropriate, the legislative, political and financial reform and development of higher education under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, that higher education should be accessible to all on the basis of merit. Unmeasured discrimination or one can be excluded from higher education or its study fields, degree levels and different types of institutions on grounds of race, gender, language, religion, age, nor by economic or social differences or physical disabilities;
b) strengthen linkages between higher education and research;
c) consider that higher education is a catalyst for the entire education system and use it as such;
d) expand higher education institutions to adopt the approach of continuing education, providing students with an optimal range of options and the possibility of entry and exit points of the system, and redefine their role accordingly, which involves establishing of open and continuous learning and the need for transition programs and the assessment and recognition of prior learning;
e) seek, where necessary, to establish close links between higher education institutions and those dedicated to research, taking into account that teaching and research are two closely related elements in the production of knowledge;
f) establish new forms of collaboration between institutions of higher education and different sectors of society to higher education and research programs contribute effectively to local, regional and national
g) fulfill their commitments to higher education and commitments, with their agreement, in various meetings, especially in the last decade in relation to human resources, material and financial, human development and education in general and higher education in particular;
h) Have a master plan to ensure new partnerships and involvement of all relevant stakeholders in all aspects of higher education: the evaluation process, including the renovation of curricula and teaching methods, services guidance and advice and, in the existing institutional framework, policy formulation and management of establishments;
i) define and implement policies to eliminate all higher education on gender stereotyping and strengthen the participation of women in all levels and all disciplines in which they are under represented at present and, especially, to strengthen its intervention active in decision-making;
j) develop clear policies concerning higher education teachers, as indicated in the Recommendation concerning the status of teachers in higher education, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in November 1997;
k) recognize that students are the focus of higher education and some of its stakeholders. They should be involved, through appropriate institutional structures, the renovation of their level of education (including curriculum and pedagogical reform) and the adoption of political decisions within the framework of existing institutions;
l) recognize that students have the right to organize themselves autonomously;
m) promote and facilitate national and international mobility of teachers and students as an essential element of the quality and relevance of higher education;
n) provide and ensure the necessary conditions for the exercise of academic freedom and institutional autonomy for higher educational establishments and persons engaged in higher education and research, to fulfill their obligations to society.
2. States in which the enrollment is low compared to internationally accepted standards should strive to ensure a higher level of education appropriate to the current needs of public and private sectors of society and develop plans to diversify and expand access higher education, especially for the benefit of all minorities and disadvantaged groups.
3. The interface with general education, technical and professional should be reviewed in depth in the perspective of lifelong learning. Access to higher education in all its forms must remain open to those successfully completing secondary education or its equivalent or eligible for admission regardless of age, while at the same time, especially for older students without formal diploma of secondary education, means of access to higher education level by promoting their professional experience. However, preparation for higher education should not be the sole or primary purpose of secondary education, be prepared for the world of work, with additional training where necessary, to provide students with the knowledge , capabilities and skills needed for a wide range of jobs. Should be promoted the idea of bridging programs for those entering the job market to return to school later.
4. Concrete measures must be taken to reduce the widening gap between industrially developed and developing countries, especially least developed countries in the fields of higher education and research. We need new measures to encourage greater cooperation between countries at all levels of economic development with regard to higher education and research. Consideration should be given to making budgetary provisions for that purpose, and developing mutually beneficial agreements with industry, both nationally and internationally, in order to implement cooperation activities and projects through appropriate incentives and funding for education, research and training of high level experts in these countries.
II. PRIORITY ACTIONS AT THE LEVEL OF SYSTEMS AND INSTITUTIONS
5. Each institution of higher education should define its mission in accordance with the present and future needs of society, aware that higher education is essential for any country or region to achieve the necessary level of economic development and social development and rational from the point of view of the environment, cultural creativity nourished by better knowledge and understanding of cultural heritage, higher living standards, peace and internal and international harmony, based on human rights, democracy, tolerance and mutual respect. These missions should incorporate the concept of academic freedom, as contained in the Recommendation concerning the status of teachers in higher education, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in November 1997.
6. When determining priorities for their programs and structures, institutions of higher education shall:
a) take into account the respect of ethics, scientific and intellectual rigor and multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach;
b) be primarily concerned to establish systems of access for the benefit of all people who have the necessary abilities and motivations;
c) use their autonomy and high academic standards to contribute to sustainable development of society and to solve important problems to be faced by the society of the future. They should develop their capacity to predict by analyzing the social, economic and political as they arise, approached in a multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary manner, giving particular attention to:
• high quality and a clear awareness of the social pertinence of studies and their role in advance, on a scientific basis;
• knowledge of major social issues, particularly those relating to poverty eradication, sustainable development, intercultural dialogue and building a culture of peace;
• the need for a close relationship with the organizations or research institutes known for their competence in this activity;
• the development of the whole education system in the context of the recommendations and the new goals of education as mentioned in the 1996 report to UNESCO by the International Commission on Education for the XXI century;
• the fundamental principles of human ethics, applied to each profession and to all areas of human endeavor;
d) ensure, especially in the universities and where possible, that faculty participate in teaching, research, student support and management of institutional affairs;
e) take all necessary steps to enhance the service they provide to the community, particularly its efforts to eradicate poverty, intolerance, violence, illiteracy, hunger and disease, through an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary applied to the analysis of the challenges, problems and different subjects;
f) to strengthen its relations with the world of work on a new basis involving effective partnerships with all social actors concerned, starting with mutual harmonization of the activities and the search for solutions to pressing problems of humanity, all within the framework of responsible autonomy and academic freedom;
g) as standard, ensuring high quality of international standards, be accountable and to assess both internal and external, respecting the autonomy and academic freedom, as they are inherent to their functioning, and institutionalize systems, structures or mechanisms specific thereto transparent end;
h) and education throughout life requires the teachers to update and improve their teaching skills and teaching methods, even more than in current systems, which are mainly based on short periods of higher education, establish structures mechanisms and programs for teacher training;
i) promote and develop research, which is a necessary element in all systems of higher education in all disciplines, including social sciences and humanities and the arts, given their relevance for development. Should also strengthen research on higher education itself through mechanisms such as the UNESCO / UNU Forum on Higher Education and the UNESCO Chairs in Higher Education. Studies are necessary and timely objectives to ensure continued progress towards key national objectives which are access, equity, quality, relevance and diversity;
j) to eliminate inequalities and gender biases in curricula and research, and take all appropriate measures to ensure gender balanced representation among students and teachers at all levels of management;
k) provide, where appropriate, guidance and advice, remedial courses, training for the study and other forms of student support, including measures to improve their living conditions.
7. Although the need for closer links between higher education and the world of work is important worldwide, it is especially vital for developing countries, and particularly for LDCs, given their low level of development economic. To achieve this goal governments of these countries should take appropriate measures such as strengthening the institutions of higher education, technical and professional. At the same time, international action is needed to help establish joint undertakings between higher education and industry in these countries.

Comment by Jenaro Romero Pastor. Prof. MS.c. DS.c. Ph.D




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