CCLP Worldwide-Spain enters the United Nations Global Compact
Dear friends of Global Compact is a real honor to be joining such a prestigious organization, and give my cooperation in such worthy goals.
Prof. Dr. Jenaro Rosemary Shepherd
Revista Vivat Academia. February 2009
Year XI. N º 102
This section, dedicated to the public denunciation of documented cases of plagiarism, is open to all who may be documented as a problem of concern.
Those responsible for “The University of Wonders, Balaclava Gazette” is the maintenance of the section.
To send documents or questions, send mail to
Amador Michael Guillen, a recalcitrant case
Plagiarism Academic Journal
Amador Michael Guillen, a recalcitrant case
Professor at the UAB, unrepentant plagiarist newly appointed Dean of Quality (!), Faculty of Education.
The case of Miguel Amador is one of the most illustrative of how you can advance in the Spanish university, particularly in the Autonomous University of Barcelona, despite having a history of plagiarism and other irregularities that would shame anyone. Some examples:
1 – When is assistant professor, Miguel Amador translates (literally word for word) to some notes in Castilian Catalan Professor Justo Arnal and, without his knowing anything, are distributed among the students signed by Miguel Amador. Thanks to the protection of Professor Josep Montane, avoiding any academic measure. In a subsequent trial for plagiarism, which comes out again this, Miguel Amador said that if his name appears on the cover is taken for granted that he is not the author of the notes, but only the subject teacher (! !). That is, for it is clear that one can “shoot” the work of any other scientist, conceal the source, and publish “notes” of subjects smoothly.
2 – Miguel Amador teaching project is largely complete copy of Antoni Sans teaching project (University of Barcelona).
3 – Miguel Amador master class has about 90 paragraphs copied verbatim from a work of Justo Arnal and others.
4 – One wonders what has actually written to win the contest Amador opposition to full professor at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.
5 – Miguel Amador runs a distance learning master and includes the notes that gives students plagiarized material again Just Arnal. Carlos Sola (the rector of the Autonomous University of Barcelona) takes no action because, among other reasons, you must charge the votes of the Faculty of Education (if this is not like a mafia, you will say).
6 – Miguel Amador runs a remote master and deserves support to students of Latin America has invented charges. The rector Charles Solá is informed and do nothing again. A collaborator, Ferran Ferrer, has a thesis on sex education in kindergarten and GBS and, instead, shows the doctor in New Technologies.
7 – Miguel Amador, in an unambiguous gesture of academic modesty, it is printing a label in which, not content to ride roughshod over the rules on logos and titles of the UAB, calling itself the International Director ‘of a master. I have to remind you that with such criteria, all teachers would have the right UNED designated “international faculty”? (This already surpasses the university corruption to enter the field of megalomania)
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Due to administrative-law proceedings controversial within our, universities related to plagiarism in public tenders, we collect the arguments of those who have positioned themselves for plagiarism or who, by their actions, have proposed to allow access to the public with an educational project copied.
These two cases of plagiarism reported to public tender by Guillem Bou Vivat Academia, while injured contestant. It thus has first-hand information by having the records of administrative disputes.
People who are alienated in favorable positions to academic plagiarism are:
Maria Angeles Pascual Sevillano (Professor at the University of Oviedo)
Juan A. Vázquez García (Rector of the University of Oviedo)
Luis Miguel Villar Angulo (Professor, University of Seville)
José Miguel Correa Gorospe (Professor, University of the Basque Country)
Vicente Sebastián Ferreres Pavia (Professor, University Rovira i Virgili)
Santiago Molina García (Professor, University of Zaragoza)
Solà Charles Ferrando (Rector of the UAB in the period 1994-2002)
Enric Marin Otto (Secretary General of the UAB 1998-2002)
Guillem Amador Miguel (Professor, UAB)
Montane Josep Capdevila (Professor, UAB)
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Maria Angeles Pascual Sevillano
In the competition to obtain a professorship this teacher teaching project presented a partial copy of her previous works. In the judicial process by the judge has proven that the project is copied.
Doña María Ángeles Pascual Sevillano had written to the Chancellor stating that:
“In any case, this part can bear to be accused of plagiarism have been made, especially when it is not true. And from that moment has to be clear that it is uncertain at the time the contestant will not personally prepare their teachers and of course Project is simply wrong that is neither wholly or in part should be reproduced on another person’s educational project. (…)
… is incomprehensible and unacceptable to do so on the basis of false accusations and attacking the professional reputation of a colleague, accusing him of a crime ”
Currently the professor cited a position as professor at the University of Oviedo, who won with the teacher copied project. Has not relinquished his post. The dispute is not over.
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Juan A. Vázquez García (Rector of the University of Oviedo)
The award of a professorship in Educational Technology with Professor Maria Angeles Pascual Sevillano was challenged by Guillem Bou as part of the project found that teaching was copied by competitors of works by other authors.
The position of Rector of the University of Oviedo, Juan A. Vázquez García, is that if there is plagiarism in a public call for the university, it does not correspond to investigate. That is, the University of Oviedo awarded a place on an educational project plagiarized (later in the judicial process has been proven by the fact that it is copied) and refers to the appealing person (in this case Bou) that if you have a complaint , is directed to court:
“As for what he calls” group number three “defects must be noted that, as is the case, the Selection Committee evaluated the educational project presented by Ms. Maria Angeles Pascual Sevillano and considered suitable for the demands of the square , finding that enjoys a presumption of validity has not been invalidated and should be respected by the Claims Commission, which also is not for resolving the alleged plagiarism reported by the appellant in its application, issue to be to refer to knowledge of the courts, if it thinks fit, on the grounds that it is a legal and criminal figure. (Rector of the University of Oviedo, in response to the appeal)
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Luis Miguel Villar Angulo (Chairman of the Competition Commission)
Guillem Bou practiced law at the law protects you review the documentation submitted by María Ángeles Pascual Sevillano (original and copies). Detect plagiarism and requested the suspension of the competition. He was denied. On his turn of exposure, since it considered that contest a farce that went against their rights, described the plagiarism in the room and delivered a statement of photocopies with the copied pages of original papers to the Commission evaluator.
The Commission again refused to consider the evidence presented and to justify their conduct, accused him of “illegal access”
“Contestant and appellant agreed to a project irregularly from a member of this Commission, without authority, to make the comparison course. The Commission decided not to take into account the public statements of Dr. Bou, nor the said copies and continue the process standard of competition under current legislation “(report of Luis Miguel Villar Angulo)
Among the statements, surprising for some, members of the court, stands for Don Vincent Sebastian Ferreres Pavia, which implies that a teacher can take advantage of another’s work quietly, provided that the overall composition is consistent. For this professor, it all comes down to a problem of “lack of subpoena”
“Not true, you lose all capacity …” (Referring to a project plagiarized) “… The important thing is the consistency of the project with knowledge area and the profile of the square to which it is competing.”
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The competition commission of the project plagiarized
The three members external to the University of Oviedo, José Miguel Correa Gorospe (Professor, University of the Basque Country), Vicente Sebastián Ferreres Pavia (Professor, University Rovira i Virgili) and Santiago Molina García (Professor, University of Zaragoza) wrote that the records had been impossible to verify whether there had been plagiarism or not, have not addressed now that it has demonstrated that there was.
None of them has asked for the review of the competition, so remain on the defense of the vote that gave the teacher Sevillano.
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Solà Carlos Ferrando
Rector is the most widely spoken in favor of allowing teachers to copy projects from other researchers.
The official response from the Autonomous University of Barcelona, being Rector Carlos Solá, the request for an investigation of an educational project copied, has been:
“As pointed out in the defense, the Royal Decree regulating these contests only requires that it be original research work in the competitions to places full professor, whose exhibition is the second test, and consequently and based on this premise that the teaching project championed by Dr. Amador is original or not is totally irrelevant for the purposes intended reviscrios, as proposed expert practice becomes irrelevant. ”
There are other manifestations of this lead to the same effect. What’s striking is that, when asked by the press about favoritism in the allocation of places a professor at the UAB, Carlos Solá not only said his university was inbred but proposed an absolute resignation to the fact the plug on our Company:
(Be) “accept that not only the university but society as a whole, the games, companies are inbred …-” (Carlos Solá, interviewed in the newspaper La Vanguardia of Barcelona)
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Enric Marín Otto (Secretary General of the UAB 1998-2002)
Enric Marín was asked to respond to the press in the radio interview on the subject of plagiarism. Marin was reaffirmed, on behalf of the UAB, that plagiarism is, in any case, a criminal offense and that the university should not enter. When asked if, then, from that moment, you could copy to be a professor at the UAB, did not answer.
Specified, but perhaps it was a document attached. Al Bou explain that it was a document in which the plagiarist had signed as author, Marin deflected the topic of conversation and no answer.
You can appreciate the attitude of the Autonomous University of Barcelona in this transcript of the interview. They consist of the “Evenings with Elisenda Roca” appear from time to time other actors such as the journalist Eugenio Madueño, that’s who posted the news in La Vanguardia.
(VA Note: The transcript of the “Evenings with Elisenda Roca” is available by clicking this link)
The proceedings of plagiarist professor continues in court. The UAB has always defended the right to copy what other authors, arguing that this detail is irrelevant for judging the quality of a teacher. There has been no statement from the UAB against plagiarism in the academic context, let alone a team stance later rectory.
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Montane Josep Capdevila (Professor, UAB)
Josep Montane was the chairman of the committee’s opposition Miguel Amador. When the Secretary of the committee, Professor Justo Arnal, noted that the lesson was copied (later discovered that much of the project as well), intervened to overrule Montane and told Amador that there was no need to respond to Mr. Arnal.
Montane has never proposed that Miguel Amador, who admitted in court to have copied, to relinquish the title he won with a plagiarism. On the contrary, has always defended and promoted to professor plagiarist.
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FRAUD SCAM IN BUSINESS
The crime most feared by companies in developed countries is fraud, even compared to other crimes such as terrorism, kidnapping, sabotage and theft. Far from being under control, this scourge seems to be gaining momentum, helped largely by a greater complexity in business, the increasing globalization of the movement of funds, the difficulties involved in dealing with different cultures and greater use of technology as the Internet. This has led to a greater sense of risk between entrepreneurs from diverse sectors and countries.
Companies are not sufficiently protecting against fraud and fraudsters are you ahead of the controls, especially in the areas of systems and shopping.
In fact, the most feared fraud are those made through computers and credit cards. Then he noted other areas, such as theft of cash, cash fraud, tax fraud, insurance fraud and fraud by direct negotiation.
However, in all cases can be prevented and it can happen again under the present circumstances of control.
A high percentage of fraud with the participation of employees of companies where the event took place.
Reactive against fraud:
The attitude of management against fraud is often reactive. More than half the companies are frauds discovered by coincidence, either through information obtained by external means, accidents or changes in the administration, among other factors.
Lack of knowledge of the business:
In general, the directives have to bueno> <menos knowledge of core business operations and to a lesser degree, of their operations in other countries. Likewise, there was some lack of coordination in regard to the management of information between subsidiaries and the parent company.
Managers tend to delegate the responsibility to implement controls to prevent major frauds. Most agree that auditors should be able to detect fraud as part of their substantial regular audits, while not willing to pay more to pass the responsibility to their auditors.
This suggests that management must take full responsibility or admit when he is delegating to the wrong people.
Controls do not always serve.
It is believed that senior management may exceed the controls. One senior executive or manager who seeks to make a big fraud may exceed established internal controls.
Fraction of firms that have had cases of fraud have been reported. With respect to companies that did not report the fraud, the costs, the fear that the case would affect their image and the uncertainty regarding the outcome are the main reasons for not doing so.
The action of the authorities against fraud:
The vast majority believes that the courts (judicial system) do not understand the complexity of the major cases of fraud and, therefore, do not fail in a satisfactory manner.
EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES AGAINST FRAUD
Here are strategies for their effectiveness, have been gaining importance in the fight against fraud, according to the experience of respondents.
• Training of employees: It is imperative, especially in regard to the management of systems, since a deficiency in this area can be disastrous.
• Informing employees of the same company or anonymous: This has led to the creation of telephone lines (hot lines) or officers at the company, which operates out of business.
• The exchange of information between companies, either by sector or geographical location. Should be cautious, because if being openly discussed may involve actions against the company for defamation.
• The design and implementation of clear policies for preventing, detecting and reporting cases within the same company. Many frauds could be avoided with planning and control systems.
• Establishment of simple laws against fraud. Defense attorneys tend to complicate the cases in the courts.
• Help management to minimize the occurrence of fraud through the establishment and maintenance by management of effective internal controls.
• Work with management to develop and carry out fraud detection procedures.
• Help management to raise awareness among employees of the company on the characteristics of fraud and the steps to report a possible fraud.
• Investigate the evidence of possible fraud or potentially fraudulent activities identified through internal audits, whether such fraud are directed to the company or their customers.
• Establish procedures prior fraud investigation.
• Managing the fraud prevention plan in the company in accordance with regulatory requirements.
FRAUD IN THE BUSINESS BANK
The fraud has been growing at an phenomenal in recent years, especially in regard to internal fraud and organized crime. And although we will never achieve a perfect universe where there is not fraud, what is clear is that whenever we are victims of this crime, not because the <> are very intelligent, but because We have given some fantastic opportunities to achieve their missions.
Hence the importance of fraud detection is no longer a reactive activity and becomes one element in the management, planning and management strategy of the modern entrepreneur.
WHO PAYS THE CONSEQUENCES OF A FRAUD?
When a fraud or a number of fraud occur in a sector, all we can:
• Managers in many forms, beginning with his reputation and loss of confidence by shareholders and their own colleagues.
• Employees who are affected by the demoralization that fraud generate a working group.
• The shareholders, by the effect of fraud in financial results, the value of the company and the image of it on the market.
• The auditors, who often are unable or have failed to recognize signs of fraud.
• The insurance companies for compensation paid.
• Finally, all of us as members of society.
EVOLUTION OF FRAUD
According to a study in the United States, approximately 27% of fraud committed against banks today, 29% against individuals and the rest against companies (21%), government (19%) and others.
On the other hand, only 10% of all cases are reported to authorities, either because the company did not know how to react to fraud, or because they want to avoid exposing fraud in the public wrong.
Let’s analyze the trends that have favored the development of fraud.
• Increased presence of organized crime. They are small mafias, two or three individuals, whose business is devoted to finding easy targets. In fact, organized crime could be responsible for the vast majority of external fraud, always remembering that they can only be successful with the participation of a corrupt employee internal.
• Increased employee corruption. It refers to the employee for a number of ethical and moral reasons, decides it is easier to make money another way, either in collaboration with organized crime or on its own initiative.
• The appearance of <> This term defines those people well prepared, very knowledgeable of business and markets, which considers the important thing is to win money from whatever.
• Development of affordable counterfeiting techniques. The technology has allowed for true wonders that do not have that aspect of old traditional stocks, bonds, notes and forms perfectly counterfeiters.
• More opportunities for fraud by operational errors. The need to grow and win new markets, has led some companies to reduce expenses wrongly. Launch new products without actually having good operating procedures, or have a good training for employees who are going to sell, manage and process these products.
• multi-jurisdictional fraud. This trend has been observed mainly in the big scams that are the aforementioned mafias.
This occurs when a fraud is carried out in a country “A” and the funds are transferred to a country “B”. Faced with this situation, it should initiate and coordinate legal action in the two countries, which is difficult because there are sometimes differences in treatment and in the criminalization of illicit activities.
• Fraudsters willing to provide legal battle. The ineffectiveness in the legal action on our part makes the fraudster get away with it. Even, sometimes the scammer is going against the company, claiming damages.
• Increased speed in the movement of funds. Today an employee only needs five minutes to commit fraud.
GOOD NEWS! IN THE FIGHT AGAINST FRAUD ARE:
• The great success in the fight against credit card fraud. Technological development has led to reductions in the awesome card fraud. However, the above is a great organization in organized crime in cards, managed by people of outstanding ability and aggressiveness.
• New laws and new anti-fraud legislation. This includes everything that has to do with money laundering and mail fraud offense.
• Increased cooperation between institutions. Many organizations use networking, ie create common databases and work teams, draw detailed statistics and conduct market studies, to analyze and better understand trends and to identify those sectors and industries where fraud is more prevalent.
SUSCEPTIBLE OF IMPROVEMENT NEWS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST FRAUD.
• The fraudsters are more sophisticated.
• The fraud appears to be an easy and cheap to business and as a good investment
• Employees are becoming more corrupt
• There has been the professionalization of fraud.
• Values are in disarray.
• Overview of accounting fraud
• Risk Management in Financial Institutions
• Fraud in the Banking Sector
• Fraud in Business Organizations
• evasion and tax avoidance and evasion
• Arrangements for credit card fraud
OVERVIEW OF CRIMINAL OFFENSE
With the existence of several legal obstacles, the ethereal l offense and the multiplicity of collective purposes, those applying justice are victims of disinformation legislative apparatus.
The seriousness of the case makes its real magnitude when we know the existence of judicial officers who betray the trust of the state. Strictly speaking the absence of a clear anti-crime policy, punishments, logistical support, participation in the design of reforms and commitments of society make it even more difficult the struggle to combat this crime.
Legal rules require streamlining, flexibility and precision. The judiciary should give concepts prior to the enactment of laws to prevent the excesses that confuse the procedures to be used in court cases. It is imperative to enact an ideological coherence to legislate against the integration of control entities towards a fight against this scourge.
Interrelated study of the circumstances of manner, time and place, are determined signs, which will be the foundation for research.
The Economic and Financial crime, criminalization is residual or alternatively, why should essentially circumstantial evidence. In other crimes against public administration, it should be full proof.
This means that reasonable doubt is imposed on the systems of assessment of offenses contingent, understanding as such those indicators not proven facts that eventually indicate new developments.
Once the facts are verified indicators, test the premise that action necessarily leads to a result that is known as fact indicated. All the facts set out to observe unity, convergence, gravity and connection, that is circumstantial evidence that will be part of the legal assessment of the investigation.
This legal assessment includes the evaluation of evidence, analysis, procedures and legal analysis applied to the inference of the case study (judgments and reasoning).
INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS AND TYPING
OF crime and fraud
• Framework for Offences under the Penal Codes
Money Laundering and Asset
Misuse of Credit
Undue mass uptake
Trading in influence
Abuse of Authority
Abuse of confidence
• Classification of crime
– Against the faith and government
– Against the Natural Heritage and Economic
– Computer crime
PANORAMA GENERALDEL ACCOUNTING FRAUD
As shown IRREGULARITIES
Bellonging HANDLING OF DOCUMENTS
* Omission of seats
* Addition and false entries
* Passes and bookkeeping procedures
* Destruction of documents
* Preparation of documents
* Alteration of legitimate documents
CRIME AND ACCOUNTING FRAUD
• BALANCE SHEET ITEMS
OTHER FORMS OF FRAUD
IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
• CURRENT MANAGEMENT
– Safety and adulteration lower transaction
– Provisional Receipts
– Doubles Refunds
– Misappropriation of money without registration
– Cash or checks jineteo
– Replacement of money by check or credit card
– Appropriations adulterated
– Destruction of invoices and vouchers
– Cloning of cash received in operations
– Complicity in robbery
• FINANCIAL ENGINEERING
– Increased travel and entertainment expenses
– Lack of advance legalization
– Creation of fictitious assets and liabilities
– Shopping nonexistent
– Double Payments to suppliers
– Overcharged customers
– Lack of opportunity in the reconciliations
• ABUSE OF ASSET MANAGEMENT
Misuse of telephone lines
Program risks unprotected
Activities prohibited in the facilities
• ABUSE OF ACCESS CODES
Shared keys outside working hours
Protection of keys in the same facilities
Without appropriate changes permanent keys
• MANAGEMENT OF TITLES, invoices or documents NEGOCIBALES
– Failure to control row
– Documents twins or alternate
• TAX evasion and avoidance
– Accounting Methods
– Violation of accounting principles
– Monitoring of National Tax Administration
– Criminal penalties
– Civil penalties and codes of ethics
– International strategies
– Responsibilities of Accountants, Lawyers and Executives – – Administration
– Tax Reform Project and its relation to the criminalization of tax evasion.
• COMBINATION OF METHODS
BANK FRAUD ARRANGEMENTS
• Stealing or subtracting values. This type of fraud is often too complicated for the series of physical checks to be passed. However, still exists.
• counterfeit checks. This remains the main source of fraud in the banking sector, in large part by the excellent quality of the forgeries.
• Managing transfers. Companies demand a fast and effective movement of their funds, an amount reached huge volumes of transactions. The banks have to meet that challenge by providing the service faster and more agile as possible. To prevent fraud, we established a series of controls quite effective. For example, each time a customer asks us a transfer by phone, fax or letter, there is always an independent person within the bank that calls home and asks to certify the data in that operation.
• Faking supplier invoices. This form occurs in coalition with another employee. There is a saying: “As two employees agree, can rob the bank.” Therefore, there must be a third checking whether any activities or transactions that could result in fraud.
• Intercepting or modifying electronic payment instructions. High skilled people intercepted a series of transfers of several companies, leading to lost quite important.
• Receive customer deposits and unaccounted for. When an employee develops a close relationship with its customers directly and sometimes eroded confidence is generated that leads to the client, for poor financial literacy, provide funds without demanding receipts or worry about receiving the extract frequency and properly.
• Getting a Bank issue a letter of guarantee (Prime Bank Instrument). This fantastic business boomed in the early ’90s, when many employees and institutions, lack of knowledge, came to issue such instruments. Fortunately today we know how they work and what instruments exist, but still it continues to issue and remain in circulation.
Other arrangements are also important sources of fraud:
• Granting loans to nonexistent customers
• manipulating accounting
• Providing guarantees
• Corrupting a bank employee.
CONTROLS THAT THERE?
In defining a strategy to prevent fraud, it is useful to think like a fraudster. Here are some of the questions we must ask:
• What are the weaknesses of the process that I am responsible?
• How long would my organization to discover a fraud?
• How I can destroy the evidence?
• How I can fool the auditors?
There are other elements that must be assessed and taken into account in any fraud prevention program:
• In my business, how to approve and check the exceptions? It is worth remembering that an exception is an unusual transaction that does not meet the requirements or with established procedures and therefore may be indicative of the origin or intention of fraud.
• How to control the mail accounts and extracts held back? In almost all frauds this element always appears as a failure in the process.
• What physical controls exist over cash, securities and guarantees?
• What controls are on inactive accounts? The dormant account is the refuge and the most effective way to hide an outflow of funds or to mask a questionable activity.
• What procedures are to open new accounts and document transactions? The concept , (know your customer), is used not only to combat fraud but to make sure we are complying with local regulations and that we are not encouraging illegal activities such as money laundering.
• What physical controls on forms are numbered? We control all these roles well, once you have a firm header and a signature, can become something of great value and represent a financial liability for the company?
HOW TO IDENTIFY THE WARNING SIGNS
These are warning signs to look for on any organization or business.
• There is a separation of functions in the processes.
• A single individual is a transaction
• Leadership by fear
• Employees without leave
• Conflicts of interest
• Sharing passwords
These are some of the many time bombs that will lead to the occurrence of a fraud and we have problems. All these elements should be the basis for a strategic plan to prevent fraud.
Also worth remembering the following sentence:
“If a deal seems too good to be true, it probably is”
The ilusionísimo only be part of the magic shows. It can never be the basis for doing business in an activity.
1. Establish codes of conduct and ethical standards clear to the entire enterprise. This must be done at all levels, from top management to operational level.
2. Establish a confidential channel for complaints. A committee of independent individuals at the management level, you receive any complaint or suspicion that there is a fraud and a reward to employees who help to detect problems quickly. This is a very fast and effective in detecting fraud.
3. Establish anti-fraud controls at all levels and regularly check their performances. To do this, you must identify the processes, sales channels and products exposed to fraud and to establish, at the unit level or department, a periodic assessment.
4. Sharing experience with other institutions and learn from negative experiences. We should not act as isolated elements and hide the problems, since the exchange of information is essential for preventing and combating fraud.
5. Facing the fraudsters. It is a difficult measure to adopt and implement, since legal action is always very painful and costly. The criminal world dedicated to fraud knows what institutions can attack and which not, either because it will cost time and money lead to fraud or because the institution has the knowledge and legal weapons to go against them.
6. Encourage skepticism as an attitude within our employees. Employees must be alert. Each time they encounter a proposal for a business or a transaction that does not understand, they should not accept or process. In this way, do not enter into relationships with non-hazardous, even with their own peers.
A fundamental rule:
“Know your employees’
“Know Your Business
This means knowing your employees from the point of view of the whole process, namely:
• Who we hire?
• They may be technically very good, but do we really know what its moral standing?
• What are lifestyles?
• How they will relate to coworkers?
PROFILE OF A fraudster
An employee who is involved in fraud, in most cases, always involves this kind of attitude:
• Concentration of functions
• Availability in solving problems
• Never take a vacation
• Financial instability
• Changes in consumption patterns and living standards
ATTITUDES TO FRAUD
1. Lost money
2. Legal action
3. Strengthening processes
If every time we have a fraud comply with only one of them and let any of the other two open, are not really fight fraud effectively. We have to fight fraudsters.
Finally, whenever we are victims of fraud have to go through the exercise hard to go back to review where we have failed and what can we do to prevent this from happening again in the future.
Most people would say that the deceptive claims involving fraud, perpetrated against an insurer. Although the intuitive answer is correct, is incomplete. Insurance fraud includes, but is not limited to fraud in the claims. It can also affect a wide range of victims, including policyholders, prospective customers, employees and the same insurance company.
THE REAL COST OF FRAUD
Nobody knows the real cost of insurance fraud. According to Insurance Fraud: The Quiet Catastrophe (Insurance Fraud: The Silent Catastrophe) of Conning & Co., estimated that insurers will lose approximately U.S. $ 120 billion annually in fraudulent claims only, as follows: U.S. $ 95 billion in fraudulent health claims, U.S. $ 20 billion in damage claims and $ 5 thousand million in claims for disability and life.
Although these figures are impressive, it should be noted that insurance companies make much more than collect premiums and pay claims. Insurers invest billions of dollars in securities and other items, millions of dollars in the acquisition of fixed assets and billions of dollars in real estate themselves. They also spend millions on vendor services, agencies and professional advisors, and also maintain massive amounts of information on insurance operations, products and customers. The list goes on. The insurance industry is exposed to the risk of fraud in each of these areas.
TYPES OF FRAUD
The causes of fraud in general, fall into two categories: internal and external fraud. Internal frauds are those perpetrated against a company or its policyholders by agents, managers or other employees. External fraud schemes, on the other hand, are directed against companies and are performed by individuals or entities as diverse as doctors, policyholders, beneficiaries, insurance salesmen and career criminals.
The internal fraud often involves: the theft of inflammation privileged or other property of the company; inappropriate relationships with vendors or consultants who have conflicts of interests, the diversion of funds from the insured or the company by employees, the use of confidential information or intentional misrepresentation by agents to prospective clients about the features or coverage of company products.
External fraud schemes may involve fraudulent claims such as life, auto, health or disability, the use of insurance products with tax advantages to hide the origins of illicit funds as well as the negotiation of counterfeit checks.
A tripartite strategy FRAUD
Companies need to define insurance fraud as widely as possible in order to understand not only fraudulent claims and false statements in insurance applications, but also the theft and misappropriation of assets of the insured or the company. The insurer should make clear, both in writing and by his actions, to account for any fraudulent activity as illegal and prohibited, as it takes seriously its legal and ethical responsibility to combat fraud.
In fact, the responsibility for combating fraud should lie clearly in the management of the company, as well as office and employee’s resume. It suggests the establishment of the following responsibilities:
1. Centralize control systems management:
As recommended in a report published in 1992, Internal Control Integrated Framework (Internal with Integrated Control) of the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO) of the Treadway commission, management should have the management system of internal controls of the organization. This includes setting the values of an organization in relation to ethics and honesty, as well as the establishment of specific policies and procedures to ensure efficiency and effectiveness of operations, reliability of financial reporting and, ultimately, compliance with laws, regulations and company policies.
Therefore, in the area of prevention and detection of fraud, management should:
a. Identify areas of exposure to fraud and evidence relating thereto.
b. Develop and maintain control procedures and policies specifically designed to combat fraud.
In addition, COSO principles specify that the internal control structure should include the following elements:
• A clear statement about the philosophy of the organization in regard to ethics and honesty, including possible sanctions for violating this philosophy.
• Detailed procedures for:
a. The authorization and approval of key businesses.
b. The constant feed of data bases and key business
c. The separation of key functions.
d. The allocation of responsibilities for continued verification of critical activities, including use of sophisticated electronic verification tools.
• Training employees to understand their roles and responsibilities and to recognize signs of possible fraud.
As required by the statutes related to fraud in several states, management should be notified as soon as possible, any suspected fraud to the organization of internal fraud control of the company.
2. Train employees on fraud
If in fact fraudulent activities are occurring, an employee often will be in the best position to identify early a possible problem. For example, a sudden change in habits of life of a co-worker, the personal, family, financial and / or health, or the discovery of a related business owned by an office mate or relative may be indicators of fraudulent activity.
The BATTERED CHILD
1. CONCEPT AND TYPE OF ABUSE
There is no uniform definition of child abuse, possible use of international documents, the doctrinal focus a host of definitions of this type of crime, but almost all meet similar parameters. General Assembly United Nations, particularly the convection of the Rights of the Child which defines child abuse as “? Any violence, injury or physical or mental abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation occurred while the child is under their parents’ custody of a guardian or any other person who has his office. ”
The concept here is to manage is: “? Any act or omission in the form usual endanger the physical or mental health or safety of a child under 18 years, by their families or persons responsible for care?. ”
This definition is derived from a number of characteristics:
1.The offense may be committed by an act or omission, whether a pro or a do not do something.
2.The acts must occur as usual.
3.La victim must be a child (sometimes the term could not be assimilated to lowest)
4.The area where lawful be made of the fact must be familiar.
1. Physical abuse. Any act or omission taken by parents or caregivers of the child, involving a physical injury or illness. Remember that the assumptions do not have to be physical contact, the spread of disease are also included. The most common are: bruises in the head and face of the child, but are also routinely carried out in the humerus and femur body injuries caused by sharp, sharp and blunt; laceration injuries to the upper lip and a torn frenulum avulsion alopecia, burns, spills, escaldura in feet, cigarette burns or iron. Also physical and visceral skeletal lesions, such as abdominal and muscle.
2. Emotional abuse. Moving what was said for the mistreatment of women, in that it is done but is difficult to prove, there is a palpable and identifiable. More frequent are cases of threats, production of fears in children and especially emotional neglect, which in severe cases often leads to criminal behavior of the child.
3. Sexual abuse. In order to derive pleasure directly. This will in turn generate the minor injuries that may be minimal as vaginitis or injuries bulb touching, so real tears most often anal tears. The main acts of sexual abuse can range from cases of contact without penetration, anal or vaginal penetration, oral-genital contact, and even injury where no contact occurs, such as pornography, sexual deviation.
4. Poisoning or drug addiction. Its purpose is to reduce the level of awareness of the infant and is very common in cases of begging. It is now quite common poisoning by tranquilizers or gas to the child drowsy to stop mourn or to stand still.
5. Neglect or abandonment. Would be closely related to physical and psychological abuse, as occurs when neglecting the basic needs of the child. These may include: lack of hygiene, food.
6. Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Consists of a description of false facts or the provocation of symptoms of a disease by parents or caregivers of the child, for the sole purpose of creating a process of diagnosis and continuing medical care. Meadows A study showing that in 095% of the cases was the mother who was behind this syndrome. It can refer identifying four phases:
a. Emergence of a group of signs produced or raised by a family member (usually the mother).
b. When the child is subject to relevant evidence in order to obtain a diagnosis, call analysis, exploration, etc..
c. The perpetrator (the mother) is going to? “Know?” the cause of the alleged disease.
d. The signs of the disease disappear when the child is separated from the person causing the damage. For example, when left for observation.
The symptoms of this syndrome is diverse since symptoms are sometimes invented by the mother while in other cases have been counterfeiting of biological samples or administration of drugs to the child. Relatively common examples: cases where the mother gives the child certain drugs so that they take pictures of hypoglycaemia, if requested analysis can be added to blood or urine sugar will be detected something in the blood, take the child to the doctor and Mother invented symptoms on the fly. There is a Spanish study conducted three authors, Delgado Rubio, Garate Aranzadi, Martin Bejarano, which revealed that the most frequent manifestations of this syndrome were digestive, abdominal, bleeding, neurological and skin, exteriorized by prolonged fever, immune deficiency syndrome , epilepsy and intoxication.
Physical abuse. Psychic. Sexual Neglect
Regarding gender differences are not significant, except for sexual abuse where a large proportion of girls in front of the children.
2. RISK FACTORS:
Cases in which the risk of victimization can be raised.
To describe these factors are going to follow a very important author, but first we must take into account a very important factor, which is the age factor. We could establish a rule under which the older of the children, lower rates of victimization.
The graph shows a downward curve as increasing age of the subjects, the main core of victimization occurs from birth to 3 years.
Focusing on risk factors highlights Galitó Amorós, could emphasize the following factors:
1. Factors associated with parents:
history of abuse, lack of affection and family breakdown in childhood.
mental retardation and emotional instability.
psychosomatic disorders: depression, immaturity, low self-esteem.
lack of self control, low frustration tolerance.
lack of parental role.
alcoholism and other drug addiction.
2. Risk factors associated with victims:
disability, mental disability and birth defects.
chronic health problems.
hyperactivity and oppositional.
prematurity and low birth weight.
3. Factors associated with socioeconomic and cultural level:
unemployment and job instability.
homelessness or inadequate housing.
or lack of social support network.
4. Factors associated with family structure:
number of children.
separated or divorced parents (normal is that abuse comes from the couple’s parent)
lack of educational standards.
Profile of abused child: male unwanted child under 3 years with some form of mental retardation or physical abnormalities and living with their parents who are unprepared for parenthood or a parent is not biological.
3. THE IMPORTANCE OF MEDICAL PERFORMANCE IN THE DETECTION OF ABUSE: filing of the complaint.
In child abuse, there is a very complex issue, which is the inability to have children to bring a complaint against her attacker. The guiding principle of detection of these ill-treatment are shown by the doctors, because when there is an attempt to abuse the child recovers at home, but if severe it leads to a hospital, and that’s where observed abuse.
Consequently, the work of the physician in detecting child abuse is essential as is often the only means of detection.
The signs to be observed are:
1. The attitude of the child, generally lower than are shown in a suspicious, fearful, and have a degree of apathy. When they go to hospital when they see a nurse tend to join the nurse, they associate it with them as they were not going to happen.
2. Keep in mind the existence of some kind of typical or characteristics of the abuse.
3. See if there are multiple signs of violence, ie only if the injury occurs also alluded to other, as well as their age, place of presentation of the lesions? is very important the discordance between the injuries alleged by the caregivers and the conclusion reached by the doctors. It should be noted the lack of regular medical care, as the presence of immunizations, regular checkups? See if the lack of care given in the smallest and malnutrition.
4.Reincidencia of injuries.
The idea is the importance of medical intervention to its identification and that the only way to determine whether or not abuse is evidence linking these as reasonable as possible. (The medical report is a valid complaint)
4. THE IMPACT OF CHILD ABUSE.
The impact of abuse in children who are seen more habitual.
We highlight two groups: immediate reactions to the abuse and the consequences themselves.
In these cases of child abuse, the consequences themselves are highly relevant given the close relationship between the victim and the victimizer. Let’s divide them into three main groups: emotional, cognitive and social.
The emotional scenarios include:
1.Trastornos depression, some authors here that it can reach the child to suicide, but the teacher does not share this because I believe that children are not clear about what is life and death.
2. Poor self-esteem.
3. Emergence of fears.
4.Trastornos of conduct.
5. Other more immediate and night terrors, a great degree of distrust and frustration.
From a cognitive perspective or academic performance (as spoken by some authors) usually occurs delayed language skills, school conditions, poor academic performance etc.
From a social perspective would include unusual dose of aggressiveness, which in time will result in antisocial and even criminal behavior.
5. THE PROBLEM OF STATISTICS
In the area of child abuse there are very few statistics that reveal the problem of this type of crime, but recently more and more there are more research aimed at defining the true extent of this problem. In particular we can identify three major sets of data that concluded at the time of making a statistic on this type crime:
First detected data, are those that involve the statistics, ie N = 300 (300 cases)
Secondly, the data detected but not reported, known but unreported cases would present itself an expression of citizen passivity, an example of a case detected but not reported, viz. A neighbor who has knowledge about ill-treatment but not the complaint.
And the last would be the assumptions or undetected cases, these would result in most cases on child abuse, the most common is the latter, it would not abuse detectors who know the attackers and the victim, but not reported nor detected.
There are very few studies on child abuse, and we must take account of these three types, especially the last.
CONCEPT AND TYPES OF ABUSE TO WOMEN
Those actions or omissions as usual, generating significant harm on women in the context of an affective-emotional relationship, past or present nature.
1 The facts can be committed by act or omission.
2 They must be implemented as usual.
Take 3rd rigged relevant damage.
4 occur in the context of a loving relationship or emotional nature or past.
1 Physical abuse: any act would include not accidental, which causes or could cause physical harm or illness. The most common examples are contusions, superficial wounds on the face, neck, chest, abdomen? and very often ruptured eardrum. As the disease to infect such a man has STD and do it with knowledge.
Abuse 2nd psychic great difficulty convincing. That the relevant conduct (behavior with a certain entity) that produces an impairment or distress in women. Example: Threats humiliation, insults.
3rd sexual abuse: some authors identified within the physical, but here is considered a separate type. Those behaviors violate against sexual freedom of women, through the use of force or intimidation against the wishes or interests of women by any other procedure. The most common are attacks, abuse, rape.
There are some authors as typologies including verbal abuse, emotional, economic, social.
3. THE CYCLE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Four stages: accumulation of tensions, violent explosion-honeymoon-resumption of the cycle.
Accumulation of stress
In this first phase, there will be no injury, the subject is accumulating all the daily pressures, both the household and other areas. Although the subject does not attacks the victim, emotional abuse can occur and the more constant it is, the closer you the explosion.
Interpreted as the release of anger starring the abuser on the victim, physical abuse begins. This usually lasts a short time interval.
He identifies with the repentance of the subject assets over liabilities. Typically, the taxpayer accepts the mercy of the active subject in the false belief that everything will return to normal.
Climbing or resumption of the cycle (there who understands that there is and who is not)
It is a facultative phase, which may not occur, a phase trap, and that while the taxpayer believes that everything is back to normal, it’s all over, it is becoming to the first phase.
As the cycle is being produced, the time periods of each phase change (increase), and also the time between one and another (decreases).
4. Redlining ACTION AFTER THE ABUSE
It will measure the procedure followed or the various scenarios that are presented.
Battered woman decides to report the facts, what you would do? Must see two profiles, the current and next few years.
First, the woman goes to the doctor, then two scenarios can occur: her complaint with the police or the medical referral of injuries to the court. It also depends on the nature of the injury, whether hospitalization or discharge is given. After the complaint or refer the party will follow the normal course of a complaint.
Second, it is common for access to specialist assistance to the victims, institute for women? here is an advice of a legal nature, psychological and medical.
Third, the woman who comes to lodge a complaint. The procedure to be followed, is taking her to a medical center to get a certificate that verifies the injury.
5. MEDICAL LEGAL ASPECTS
View Course Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, a degree in Criminology.
6. AFTERMATH OF ABUSE
Dual terminology is used to cover these situations:
Immediate reactions to abuse. There is a sequel in itself, because they occur after the abuse and last until the next sequence abusers. Are reactions to the violent event. They usually appear during the first assault and as it becomes habitual abuse tends to disappear. The most common are:
1. Feelings of terror, anguish and confusion.
2. Mental block.
4. Feelings of shame, anger and humiliation.
5. Psychophysiological symptoms, ie, tachycardia, tremors, …
6. Denial of the facts.
Aftermath themselves. Those conditions produced as a result of other injuries previously generated. They are externalized manifestations later, after a time of violent act. The most common are:
1.Trastornos anxiety. It is an unpleasant emotion that produces fear and emotional stress are the phobic situations (agoraphobia), obsessive compulsive disorder (repetitive acts to reduce anxiety, may be the case in which the woman identified as dirt from his home because of abuse, therefore tends to be always cleaning), posttraumatic stress disorder (when reliving an event that reminds the aggression).
2.Trastornos mood. The most common are cases of depression.
3.Trastornos psychosomatic. They are physical symptoms that suggest a particular disease but can not be explained through them, are physical symptoms caused by psychological reasons such as chronic pain, discomfort gastroinstestinales, cardiovascular?
Somatoform 4.Trastornos. The most common are toxic addictions, sexual disorders, eating disorders, sleep disorders, behavioral?
7. PROFILE OF THE VICTIM OF ABUSE
Always there to talk about profile, prototype ever, because when it comes to profile speaks the most common features are most representative observed on a sample of battered women (in this case). As the prototype is when the woman would give all the features.
Key variables profile of battered women:
– Age: 30 to 45 years. Do keep in mind one fact, and that is always measured the time it was aware of the situation of abuse, when the person reports, go to a health center. So this would not go back, if the average time it might be said to be seven years, where the abuse originates will range between 23 and 38.
– Status: The most common types are both married and unmarried.
– Cultural level: medium-low. Here you can ask a question, if there is abuse at all levels, why is revealed this level? Because it is more common in addition care services and advice to the victims are targeted at women of this estate and if it measure the level of education can see that the vast majority (nearly 90%), there is no education higher.
– Economic dependence: it can be associated with a 53.3% of these women did not work, does not have any income, and also the 46.7% who work, 89% do so in occupations related to the restoration and Non- qualified.
– Children in common with the abuser: the average reveals that typically have between 1 and 2 children. Along with this you can add another characteristic of a psychological nature, such as the presence of low self-esteem, lack of responsiveness, feelings of guilt, and especially great sense of dread at the possibility of intervention or interference of others in the nucleus of living.
– Social isolation and family.
– Identification with the traditional socio-cultural roles
8. THE PROBLEM OF STATISTICS: OFFICIAL AND UNOFFICIAL SOURCES.
There are many statistics in this field, they respond to various sources, which are classified into two: formal and informal.
Officials: those whose statistics or whose data emanating from a public body.
Unofficial: those entities that perform a statistical nature and have no public. For example, associations, federations, etc..
What is the more reliable of the two? It is rare that any reflection of reality, in addition there is a large black figure, depending on who does the survey will be pursued as interest or otherwise.
If you want to compare statistics, check the parameters that have governed the investigation to determine possible biases that may derail the investigation.
9. FIRST PLAN OF ACTION TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE LAW 1 / 2004 OF 28 DECEMBER.
Evolution texts that have suffered domestic violence assistance.
The starting point is the “I Plan of Action against Domestic Violence”, was in effect from year 98 to year 2000, is perhaps the most comprehensive plan that has existed on domestic violence, and is a plan that is directed indiscriminately to any type of victim, does not specify any consideration to support the measures included in it. Specifically is geared primarily to women, elderly and children, would include several measures from the legal perspective, psychological, medical, etc. around 75-80% of what is reflected in the plan was carried out: office assistance to victims, easier to obtain resources, etc. What? That when the plan expires in 2000, what the Government is seen great results, creating the “Second Comprehensive Plan against Domestic Violence”, in force since 2001 until 2004, is to enhance the resources that were created and create new ones, but the first big problem is observed and derived a posteriori, is that here the victim stops talking in general terms, what is done is that the plan focuses exclusively on women, the word child appears twice in this plan and is always in relation to children with mothers can go to the shelters, the word old is not on any side, the Government is making this plan focus exclusively to field GBV (Continued by popular pressure and certain groups).
This leads to the current situation, the “organic law 1 / 2004 of Comprehensive Measures against Gender Violence”, which is the text victimal quintessential today. It is not a simple plan of action but an organic law, which is consistent, being a continuation of the second plan. It includes the term particularly vulnerable victim, although late and poorly incorporated, because at first the law was aimed at women and for different pressures are taken into account as the term is often out of context, which is to go to persons with disabilities, the endogenous biological factor could benefit from this situation.
What is happening today? The current situation is the enactment of this law, which contemplates another vast catalog of measures, and although it is an organic law not only refers to legal things (they account for 7-8%), health care is a basic law, which has also reformed penal code, criminal types have been introduced that increase the liability when the victim is a woman or particularly vulnerable victim. It says the law as the source of the penal reforms produced a posteriori are unconstitutional.
Where should this go in the future? We are seeing a greater protection for children, society is being aware that there is another victim, so it is very likely to start work on domestic violence focused on the figure of the child as a victim of this crime.
CARE FOR OUR CHILDREN
The crimes committed against children are a complex social phenomenon increasingly common and disturbing, especially the subtle character that appears and the trauma that leaves a deep impression among its victims. Making a quick review of statistics in recent years on cases of child abuse reported to the Integrated Family Development, it is notable increase in the awesome and sometimes doubling and even tripling year over year, this is bad practice crime in most countries. The complex nature of this phenomenon and its rapid growth necessary to revise the impact and have had various strategies that have been introduced from different areas of social intervention and prevention to assist you.
In this complex task, since the psychology and perspective, try to establish the conceptual nature of abuse as grounds to establish ways in adult-child relationship that comply with their characteristics. Once done, we hope that it will be possible to analyze the dynamics of abusive relationships and classified and propose possible solutions from the formative education, which is sometimes dismissed as a powerful weapon to combat this social ill. The principles of scientific psychology as a foundation seeking conceptual clarity to avoid confusion in the research and implementation of programs and procedures to remedy them.
Child Abuse can be defined as “a social disease, international, present in all sectors and social classes produced by multi-causal factors, interacting and various intensities and times that affect the harmonious, full and appropriate for a minor, committing their education and consequently their school performance to disturbances that threaten their social relations and therefore their social and professional formation. ”
The analogy of abuse as a disease, as this concept, original medicine, is broadly applicable to any system of organization to refer to a state in which the processes tend to disintegrate and, therefore, dysfunction or loss of system under observation. The opposite state, health, refers in turn to an organization such processes characterized by integrity, conservation and development of the system.
Once a phenomenon is identified as “healthy” or “unhealthy”, then takes on the connotation respective desirable or undesirable, and desirable in turn becomes a value to be achieved. Hence, any behavior or conduct that has as its goal the value of health as a result acquire a normative character.
Child abuse and its forms, it becomes essential to specify a behavior analysis, ideal, ideal profile criminal as far as the adult-child relationship. He is concerned. But first, we must emphasize that in a general model of adult-child relationship will be necessary to extend the adult’s role as an individual to cover not only the parents or guardians, but even those institutions formed by adults, whose raison d’etre is precisely the attention to the physical, psychological, social and moral development of minors.
The adult-child relationship plays a role adults active and intentional about the biological needs, psychological and social child, where the latter plays a relatively passive role, depending on their stage of development, in the administration of their own satisfactory and a receptive role with respect to the actions of adults. The hierarchical nature of the relationship adult-adult gives the child’s initiative, choice and action to the needs and the child’s physical person, which predisposes the latter to be the subject of such actions, either desirable , ie attached to the regulations, or undesirable actions of abuse.
The adult exerts its role to the lesser of two ways. The first is providing the minor events or situations to the extent of its possibilities. These events or situations may have different desirability according to the rule, so it can be “satisfactory” as food, shelter, clothing, affection, education, etc., Or they may not like the shock, sexual violence, insults, incitement to vice, pornography, ect.
The second way in which the adult is exercising its role in preventing the occurrence of events or situations for the child. As in the previous case, these events may have different desirability according to the standard. The adult can prevent the lower order of events or situations “harmful” such as disease, insults, beatings or sexual violence from other people, incitement to vice, etc., which in everyday speech we refer to as “protect” the child. But the adult can prevent the child has contact with desirable events or situations according to the rule, such as better food, clothing, housing, education or the care of family members.
The important point here is that the concept of abuse, as used daily, is not given, nor the intent of the action, or by the action itself, the adult to the child, but in terms of the nature of the events or situations that these actions have adult contact or not with the child. Many times we find it hard to believe the argument of “good intentions” of an action before, for example, adversely affecting the character of certain strokes given to a child as punishment for disobedience or an immoral act. Regardless of the technical problems that need to check the “true” intent of an action, this intention, good or bad, rarely justifies the harmfulness of certain events or situations or avoided provided the child by an adult.
In cases where the adult takes actions towards the child, where such actions provide or avoid certain events or situations other than hedonic character. However, abuse can also be conceived in terms of the omission of actions by the adult to the child. These are the cases where the adult and can do, or provide or avoid events or situations of any kind to the child. It should be clear that cases of omission are quite different from the action to avoid. Avoid explicit action involves not likely occurrence of certain events, while the failure is the very absence of an action.
Summarizing then, we can say that a functional analysis of adult-child relationships in the terms in which we have, we can define four types of abuse:
When the adult provides the child events or situations which endanger their physical integrity and proper psychological and social development. As an example we can cite cases in which the adult assaults, insults, viola or induced to defect to a minor.
When adults avoid or prevent the child has contact with events or situations that promote their physical and psychological development and social right. One example is the case in which a parent acts to keep the youngest child to have contact with the other parent, despite having been authorized by law.
When the adult does not provide or does provide the minor events or situations that promote physical fitness and proper psychological and social development of the child. To mention one example, we cite the case where one parent stops working for denial of alimony ordered by a judge.
When the adult does not prevent or stop to prevent the child has contact with events or situations that threaten their physical integrity and proper psychological and social development. A case example is when a parent does not act to physical or verbal aggression that one of the brothers has on a child, or when the director of an educational institution does not act before a master or daunted harassing his students.
Now compare the type of abuse that we have proposed the definition of abuse: are minors they face and often suffer occasional physical violence, emotional or both, performed by action or omission, but always on purpose, not accidental , by parents, guardians or persons responsible for them. “classified into four categories, the types of abuse, by their nature: the physical, psycho-emotional, sexual abuse, and failure to care. While we recognize the usefulness of classifying maltreatment in categories managed to legal issues, it is clear that these correspond to particular instances or patterns of abuse designed, as we have done in terms of functional relationships between adult-child. Also, a careful examination would find ways to abuse are not covered, or at least not clearly in the above categories. One example is these more subtle forms of abuse that occur when the adult keeps the child has contact with situations that promote well-being or development, or when the adult allows the den situations where the child suffers the abuse of others with whom they live, whether at the family or outside the family.
Another advantage offered by the typology is the ability to analyze the dynamics of relationships to infer its causes and identify possible ways to control or prevention of abuse.
The intent of the actions of abuse
The problem of intentionality of the actions of abuse is a difficult issue to address under the traditional metaphysical perspective that conceives the intention and determination of the will and the will and the power of the mind or the mind that moves to do or not do one thing.
Scientific psychology addresses the problem of the intentionality of behavior in terms of the different ways in which it is organized. Then, in describing how a child may become the object of the acts or omissions of the adult, we can objectively approach the problem of intentionality of the actions of abuse.
There are three ways a minor may be subject to abusive behavior by an adult: a thing, as an instrument, and as an investment:
One child plays the role of thing in the adult’s actions when the latter uses the child as a direct target of his conduct, who runs or who “dump” their emotions or states of passion. Perhaps this is the simplest, most basic of abuse, where the adult is not in the least more than that, one thing, ignoring everything, even his ability to feel pain. Clear examples of this type of intentional physical abuse are beatings, insults, and rape.
The role of the child as an instrument occurs when the adult uses the child as a means to gain immediate psychological material or other person or circumstance. In this case the adult uses the child as an extension of their own abilities, ignoring or disregarding the risk facing the child at the situation, actor who portrays himself as autonomous and apparently moved by his own impulses and interests. This form of intentional abuse occurs in cases such as when an adult uses the child to get to rob a home. It is also the case when a parent instructs his son to be indifferent or aggressive to the other parent, as a revenge.
The role of children as an investment is when the adult child makes use of inducing certain habits and customs in order to obtain a material benefit or long-term psychological himself or other persons or circumstances. In this case the adult sees and uses the child as a potential source for their own benefit, direct or indirect, and teaching or instigating acts the child to acquire certain behavioral patterns or trends whose practice generates those profits. This case represents, from our point of view, the best definition of the phenomenon of corruption of minors. The induction of minors to alcohol, drugs, prostitution, homosexuality, pornography, vandalism, etc., are all instances of this kind of intentionality in the actions of abuse.
Moral education as a weapon without equal to tackle social disease, such as abuse and corruption of minors.
We live in an era when political models are governed by economic factors and variables. Consumerism has taken flight as a philosophy, if anything it is the term of education, which aims to equip men and women to earn a living or to eke out a position in society, but always in the interests of markets now synonymous with opportunity. Under these policies, human beings have been turning into “capital.” Education at all levels is planned to make us competent and competitive, at the expense of the welfare of others. Free competition in the markets, whatever their nature (academic, occupational, political, etc.) Operates under the plan Darwinian survival of the fittest and, therefore, the purest selfishness, the primacy of me and my benefit. To the selfish, all that exists in nature was willing in his service, including other human beings. To the selfish, the other human beings are of a different nature to inanimate objects, but have the additional defect that significantly threatened because they compete with him for the same satisfactory. Neighbor, then, is to educate him or corrupt, no matter, for certain business interests, or defeat, or have disappeared without compassion. It is difficult to anticipate what might be called, if we continue this way, the “Tragedy of Consumerism”: an aggregate of individuals, not “society” in a constant struggle to survive in the aforementioned markets.
Consumerist mode of liberalism that we live and unfortunately a few decades, has made us forget that the principle of any society is altruism, the tendency of humans to do for others, as a form of self survival, undisputed origin of language human and, therefore, of civilization and culture. Altruism, that attitude which in turn is based on empathy, the ability to feel as if firsthand the pain and pleasure that the other feels, that feeling that we refrenaría the impulse to instill pain blows humiliate or violate our neighbors.
We believe that moral education can regain the sense that an individual’s dignity and integrity of your life are gifts more valuable than any material benefit, that everyone has the right to be happy, and that all human beings are equal in rights.
Moral education, understood how to teach individuals to see their neighbor, which was launched recently outside the classroom, and instead replaced by more parts of a curriculum that operates similarly to the instruments of financial investment banking.
Therefore, if we still exist in some crack through which can flow sincere appreciation for human dignity, make an effort to pass these values on a daily basis.
ORGANIZED CRIME AND FINANCIAL GLOBALIZATION
United Nations, New York Public Information Department
The “restructuring” of the economy, trade and finance in a world dominated by neoliberal globalization has led to the crime. While state systems are crumbling under the weight of the financial crisis, organized crime starts to play a key role in the economy and state policy, while taking advantage of deregulation of international financial system to “wash” their money ill-gotten. The crime has become, thus, an integral part of the international economic system, with far-reaching social, economic and geopolitical.
Throughout the Third World, corruption, stimulated by financial deregulation is undermining the national economy and impoverishing millions. Organized crime has infiltrated the international finance and banking. In both industrialized and developing countries, the state system is in crisis and the mafia have become important actors in the economic and social policies of governments.
In this context, banks “respectable” routinely ignored the line between organized capital and organized crime, laundering paying huge amounts of money, while the restructuring of global trade and finance tends to favor the “globalization” of economic practices criminal.
Thus, the misdeeds of the young offenders are highlighted by the press and the police, while political and economic functions of international criminal organizations, operating as legitimate business entities in the world market, are seen as a natural part of the system.
For some time, the gangs have replaced the black flag by the computer and the violin case with a machine gun in the briefcase executive. This step of the underworld to the neat meeting rooms has been provided by the global trend of “economic liberalization”, responsible for the reduction of the state, deregulation of banking and international trade, and privatization of public enterprises. These conditions not only benefit large transnational corporations and international banks who promote them vigorously, but also promote the growth and the “internationalization” of unlawful practices. In reality, the boundary between two types of activity is almost imperceptible.
Gains and the influence of organized crime is enormous, both in industrialized and developing countries. According to the United Nations Organization (UNO), the proceeds of transnational criminal organizations worldwide total about one trillion dollars, equivalent to gross domestic product (GDP) of all low-income countries, with a population 3,000 million. (See minutes of the UN Conference on Crime Prevention, Cairo, May 1995). The UN estimate includes the proceeds of drug trafficking, weapons, nuclear materials and services controlled by the Mafia (prostitution, gambling, money exchange). What these figures do not adequately convey the magnitude of the investments made by criminal organizations routinely in commercial enterprises “legitimate” as well as their control of the means of production in many areas of the legal economy.
And as large firms have increased their reach and influence forming transnational firms that can evade the control of individual countries, organized crime has also been globalized. A new transnational relationship has emerged between the triangles in Asia, the Japanese yakuza and the European and American mafias. Instead of protecting their traditional field, criminal organizations in different parts of the world have combined forces “in a spirit of global cooperation” aimed toward “new markets” in the economy both in legal and illegal. According to one observer, “criminal groups work better than most Fortune 500 companies (…) with organizations that are more like General Motors than to the traditional Sicilian mafia.” According to a statement from the FBI director, Jim Moody, a U.S. congressional subcommittee, the Russian mafia “criminal groups cooperate with other countries, including those established in Italy and Colombia (…) The transition to capitalism (in the former Soviet Union) offered new opportunities that were quickly exploited by these organizations. ”
In addition, criminal groups routinely collaborate with commercial enterprises that invest in a variety of projects “legitimate”, which not only offers them the opportunity to launder drug money of illegal origin, but also to accumulate wealth in a legal framework. These investments are made in luxury real estate, entertainment, publishing, media and financial services, but also in utilities, manufacturing and agriculture.
In the United States, the mob invests in real estate both urban and agricultural land. In Thailand, thousands of millions of dollars from the Golden Triangle of heroin were recycled by trade unions and secret societies Bangkok towards investments in the textile industry. In addition, hundreds of millions of dollars of Mexican drug cartels to buy companies went public during the wave of privatizations begun under President Carlos Salinas de Gortari.
The criminalization of politics
To thrive, like legitimate businesses, criminal syndicates need friends in lofty positions. In the new global financial environment, powerful lobbying clandestine groups connected to organized crime cultivate friendship with prominent political figures and senior government officials. This phenomenon is common not only in the so-called “emerging markets”, but also in the European Union, the United States and Japan, where corruption is rampant.
In Italy, the most blatant example of Europe, the Cosa Nostra invaded the whole political environment. In addition to the former Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti, accused of taking money from the mob, about 3,000 officials and corporate executives were investigated or indicted for corruption.
The nature of the state and social structure have been transformed. In several Latin American countries, the drug cartels invaded the state and joined the ruling political party.
As was evident in the scandal of the Liberal Party of Colombia, the Cali cartel made important contributions to the campaign of President Ernesto Samper, and in 1995, more than a dozen members of Congress, the comptroller, the attorney general and Defence minister were indicted for accepting payments from the organization.
Similarly, political assassinations in Mexico in 1994, allegedly involved in former President Carlos Salinas de Gortari and his brother Raul, brought to light the role of drug trafficking in the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party. The drug czar Juan Garcia Abrego was the president’s brother as sponsor.
In Bolivia, since the mid-’80s, successive coalition governments also have links with drug traffickers.
In Venezuela, the “drug mafia” have been used to launder drug money to the largest commercial bank in the country, the Latino. Before its spectacular collapse along with 19 other banks in the country in 1994, the Banco Latino was controlled by the family of Pedro Tinoco, who also was chairman of the Central Bank under the government of President Carlos Andres Perez and played a key role in the design structural adjustment program implemented since 1989. (See Geopolitical Drug Watch, No. 51, January 1996, p. 8). In the words of one observer, “the drug cartels created a symbiotic relationship between the economy and political structures” (declaration of Alejandro Reyes, National University of Colombia, quoted in Anna Proenza, “De la verticale à la multiplication concentration cartelitos des “Documents et Dossier Le Monde, January 1996).
Here, as elsewhere, these relationships allowed criminal organizations have a decisive influence on macroeconomic policy. In several Latin American countries, structural adjustment programs were adopted by politicians directly linked to drug cartels.
The area government intelligence services seem to have a special propensity to exchange favors. Since the end of the Second World War, Western intelligence agencies developed a complex relationship with drug trafficking in particular. In case after case, drug money laundering in the international banking system financed covert operations.
Recycling dirty money
Most of the proceeds collected by criminal organizations, however, is recycled through perfectly normal channels, with the help of their legitimate counterparts. Dirty and covert money is deposited in commercial banks who use it to extend loans to legal and illegal businesses, and investment is channeled into “respectable” in primary commodities, stocks and government bonds. In many countries, it is through this bond that criminal organizations, creditors of large public debt, have a tacit influence on macroeconomic policy of the government.
With so many things in common, it is not surprising that the same financial system that favors the banks and legal firms to serve criminal organizations. The laws that encourage capital flight to offshore tax havens to help not only people of wealth to draw from their country, “black money” (which escaped the Treasury), but also gangs to relocate their ill-gotten gains. In both cases, the banks charge succulent
Commissions on transactions.
Commercial banks also profit from lending large sums of money to criminal organizations. These capital injections support the expansion of the criminal economy, and the penetration of the legal economy by organized crime. The gangs, in turn, made significant investments in commercial banks, some of whom control, and legal and brokerage firms that may not be as useful and cost effective. The expert Jonathan Harris conservatively estimated that the U.S. banking system lava year of $ 100,000 million of organized crime, using some of the largest banks in Manhattan. Another study highlights the role of large investment firms in New York and the agents of foreign exchange and gold bullion Wall Street in laundering money from drug cartels.
Although there are many documented instances of money laundering, criminal prosecutions are invariably limited to bank branches. Very few banks were subject to trial. For example, in a plea deal made in 1994 in Houston, the American Express Bank International was fined seven million dollars and was seized 25 million to settle allegations of money laundering.
“The trial of American Express arose from criminal charges filed against two directors of the bank working in Beverly Hills, California, convicted of moving funds through bank accounts controlled by companies established in the Cayman Islands. To seek agreement , federal officials agreed to waive criminal charges from the bank. “We decided that criminal activity had not invaded the entire company, but merely a branch,” said U.S. Attorney David Novak. (Russell Mokhiber, “The dirty money Amex, “Multinational Monitor, December 1994).
Offshore banking havens
Almost all roads within this leading financial network to offshore banking havens. It is here that interact criminal organizations and representatives of the largest commercial banks in the world. The gangs take advantage of services offered and advances in telecommunications and banking. Tickets without going through international borders, move and hide their illicit gains through a network of offshore hiding places and a maze of front companies “anonymous.
Privacy, technology and lack of regulation that attract criminals are the same that facilitate the legal flow of money between a parent company and a subsidiary-front. In Luxembourg, the islands of the Channel, Cayman Islands, Vanuatu, Cook Islands and 50 other places, many of the world’s leading banks setting up subsidiaries private offering “discreet and personalized service” to create free accounts taxes. In addition, you can access these accounts through Visa and ATM card from anywhere in the world.
Despite its geographical location, these offshore havens are essentially appendages of the Western banking system. The Caribbean, for example, were established under British banking laws, with technical advice from Western banks. These subsidiaries are identical and are based on British laws that ensure total privacy and establish criminal penalties for bank employees to disclose information about customers or the bank itself. Thus, in the seedy atmosphere of offshore banking, property of the Mafia are protected by the penal code.
It is under this protection that criminal organizations have flourished. The magnitude of offshore banks is vast and unknown, since no reports on much of the money deposited. The U.S. investment firm Merrill Lynch estimates conservatively that the wealth of individuals driven to bank accounts in offshore tax havens amount about 3.3 billion. Meanwhile, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimated at $ 5.5 billion offshore assets of corporations and individuals, a figure equivalent to 25 percent of total world income. In addition, wealth in ill-gotten much of Third World elites deposited in numbered accounts is estimated at 600,000 million dollars. A third of that amount is placed in Switzerland.
While Switzerland is still the favorite paradise, with more than 40 percent of assets hidden offshore bank accounts non-residents, has numerous competitors, both legitimate and illegitimate wealth. Small Cayman Islands, with more banks and trust companies registered inhabitants, is the fifth largest banking center in the world.
Not only the bankers, but also change agents and managers of pension funds and mutual funds using offshore institutions. With the deregulation that characterized the 80s, the centers of the Caribbean came to play an important role in the European currency arrangements through registered subsidiaries of U.S. banks.
Large insurance companies also use offshore coverage to help firms to establish “captive subsidiary” to receive insurance premiums “to cover the risk of the parent company.” Both businesses and criminals use tax havens to recycle their profits to a variety of commercial activities including high-risk investment and “hot money deposits” in the stock markets of Southeast Asia peripheral and Eastern Europe. Thus, the black and dirty money become routine in “hot money”, which consists mainly of short-term deposits highly speculative, often managed by large investment firms.
The effect of these havens offshore tax evasion is a massive, huge reserves of corporate funds in the form of tax-free money and capital flight on such a scale that leaves the national economy, already weak and severely indebted, devastated and unable to work. This flight of billions of dollars dramatically reduces tax revenues, paralyzes the social programs, increase the budget deficit and stimulate the accumulation of a large public debt.
Overall debt, drugs and economic medicine
The role of drug trafficking and money laundering in the growing problems of the national debt is particularly important. The fall in world price of commodities and the resultant debt crisis of the early ’80s helped to decimate the export earnings in developing countries. Then, when the debt increased, international creditors imposed structural adjustment programs instigated by the IMF, which require strict austerity measures, the auction of state industries, a freeze on public investment and the reduction of credit to farmers and industrial. Rampant unemployment and falling real wages led to a crisis resulting from the “legal economy.”
The simultaneous collapse of exports and domestic markets created a vacuum in the system that allowed a dramatic expansion of the underground economy. In many countries, the illicit production became the key sector of the economy, the main source of foreign exchange and a fertile ground for criminal organizations. In Bolivia, the New Economic Policy sponsored by the IMF, adopted in 1985, it contributed to the disappearance of mineral exports and massive layoffs in the mining state consortium Comibol. Unemployed, laid-off miners used their allowances to invest in the cultivation of coca, thus enhancing drugs.
Similarly, the “economic stabilization and structural adjustment program in Peru during Alberto Fujimori’s government created a social and economic chaos. The shock of August 1990, which included a multiplication of fuel prices by 30 of the overnight, led to farmers who lived snugly in the cultivation of coffee, maize and snuff to be devoted to coca cultivation. According to the UN, “the activities of the Mafia were facilitated by structural adjustment programs that indebted countries were forced to accept in order to receive IMF loans.” (See Department of Public Information, UN, Crime Goes Global, New York, 1995, p. 2).
The Peruvian state system links with drug cartels were analyzed in several press reports in Mexico and Peru. According to the declaration of the “godfather” of cocaine Demetrio Chavez Limonier Peruvian justice court in 1996, the lawyer Vladimiro Montesinos, the head of the National Intelligence Service and Fujimori’s chief adviser, headed a network of drug trafficking and weapons along with the president’s brother, Santiago Fujimori. (See The Geopolitical Drug Dispatch, Paris, No. 62, December 1996, p. 8).
But the close correlation between the pressures of debt and increasing the activity of the mafia is not limited to Latin American and Asian drug triangles. In Africa, where trade barriers were lifted, following the advice of international financial institutions established in Washington, and grain surpluses in Europe and the United States turned to the domestic market, local agricultural production plummeted. Given the decline in food self-sufficiency and increased external debt, many farmers replaced their food crops by the use of cannabis. In Morocco, hashish cultivation profit now equals the combined income of all agricultural exports of the country legal. In Ivory Coast cocoa farmers are being devoted to the ganja, a local variety of marijuana with an excellent export potential. And in other African countries, drug mafias also found their way into local politics.
The pattern is repeated in the former Soviet bloc. The “strong economic medicine” imposed by external creditors contributed to the expansion of the illicit economy, which feeds on poverty and economic dislocation. In Ukraine, for example, the “shock” sponsored by the IMF and implemented by October 1994 sowed chaos one day to another, the price of bread rose 300 percent, 600 percent of electricity and public transport 900 percent. Along with the lifting of subsidies and the freezing of funds, the reforms helped to weaken the economy of Ukraine. Economic liberalization has also opened the door to dumping in the domestic market for U.S. grain surpluses and “food aid”, which contributed to the destabilization of one of the largest producers of wheat in the world. The Geopolitical Drug Watch, based in Paris, confirmed that, with decreasing production of wheat in Ukraine, the illegal opium cultivation is increasing rapidly. The dynamics are the same in the former Yugoslavia, where local agriculture is being replaced by the cultivation of poppy and heroin production controlled by the Italian organization Sacra Corona Unita.
Only available source
Due to the increasing debt of developing countries and the collapse of agriculture and industries under the weight of structural adjustment programs, the annual interests can reach exceed total earnings from exports. Under these circumstances, the revenues of the illicit trade become the only available source of foreign exchange and government both debtors and creditors have a financial interest in the uninterrupted flow of lucrative smuggling. In the “narco-democracy” in Latin America, governments cooperate with the recycling of billions of “drug money” through the banking system to meet the demands of external creditors and international financial institutions.
In the early 90s, the Central Bank of Peru purchased an average of eight million daily drug money through informal change agents operating on the streets of downtown Lima. That money was used to pay the interest on the national debt. Latin American governments also used drug profits to buy arms and bolster its military forces, and in several countries, some military factions have connections with the drug mafia. Ironically, “the U.S. efforts against drugs forge even closer links with their government police and military abuses,” according to the Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA).
Many Western and Japanese commercial banks took advantage of the opportunities created by privatization and restructuring of debt on real estate buying public “at a good price.” They also acquired state-owned banks in Latin America and Eastern Europe, many of them involved in money laundering illegal proceeds.
In Hungary, for example, the Central European International Bank (CIB) was acquired by a consortium of foreign banks made up of the Italian commercial bank, Bayerische Vereingsbank AG, Bank Long Term Credit of Japan, Sakura Bank and SOCIT Générale. The CIB has full freedom to move money without government interference or exchange rules. A court case occurred in 1992 in Luxembourg confirmed that the Cali cartel used the IBC to transfer huge amounts of money. But, as stated by a member of Hungary’s anti-drug squad, “with the economic problems of this country and the need for liquid assets, you can not ask the government to analyze too the source of the money deposited in their banks.”
In Bolivia and Peru, reforms of the banking system led by the IMF facilitated the free flow of currency into and out of the country. “This means nothing less than legalized money laundering by Peru’s financial system,” said one observer. (Humberto Campodonico, “vagabond capital pay external debt,” Interdependence, March 1996, p. 13). And in fact, given the devastation of the legal economy, laundering drug money is probably what made profitable to banks in Peru.
In Latin America, many state banks privatized, previously involved in laundering drug money, are now under the control of European and U.S. companies. An example is the case Interbanc, a Peruvian state bank acquired in 1994 by Darby Overseas, a company of Nicholas Brady, Treasury secretary under President George Bush. According to the Financial Times, Darby Overseas “was established a year ago (in 1993) by Brady, Hollis McLoughlin, his chief adviser to the Treasury, and Daniel Marx, (former) Secretary of Finance of Argentina (…) The main IFH inspiring formed to compete in the bidding Interbanc, Carlos Pastor, Minister of Economy of Peru in the early ’80s. ” (Sally Bowen, “Brady Investment in Peru”, The Financial Times, July 22, 1994).
In Russia, privatization programs imposed by Western creditors clearly favored the transfer of a significant proportion of state assets to organized crime. It is not surprising then that the Russian mafia, which is a new capitalist class, have pushed the “free market” and fervently supported macroeconomic reforms of President Boris Yeltsin.
The mafia also supported the campaign for Yeltsin’s reelection in July 1996. They, along with the old Soviet nomenklatura, transferred billions of dollars “black” and “dirty” to offshore hiding places. Some of that money returned to Russia to buy companies and public lands. Luxembourg and the British Virgin Islands are respectively third and fourth place among the “foreign investors” in Russia. In addition to the Russian mafia, criminal organizations, often by Western an investing institution-channeled money into “emerging financial markets” in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, which have topped the shares of companies privatized.
Political control over military and government officials, and their own representatives in parliament, more than 1,300 criminal organizations of the Russian Federation have the clout to impose “democracy” and to model the macroeconomic policy at your convenience. They also have more financial leverage than considerable. According to a recent study published by the Academy of Sciences, the mafia controls more than 40 percent of the Russian economy, half of the commercial real estate in Moscow and two thirds of business entities, in total, some 35,000 private companies, almost 400 banks and 150 state enterprises. A sector of the Russian mafia is also involved in selling nuclear material, space and defense, including guided missiles and bomb-grade plutonium, as well as conventional weapons.
The criminalization of the Russian economy was recognized by the World Bank. A study by Louise Shelly, published in the March 1997 newsletter of the transition from World Bank suggests that about half of Russia’s economy is controlled by criminal syndicates. Citing Yeltsin, the article admits that “the” godfathers “of the Mafia kidnapped free market reforms and the privatization program was responsible for the transfer of state assets to organized crime.
The study also acknowledged with disappointment that “the new owners criminals are not interested in running their businesses, but to exhaust their resources and to transfer profits abroad (…) These groups use force if necessary, but support their huge financial assets and strong links with the former Communist elite, the army and the banking sector. ”
In Albania, the so-called pyramid investment funds that collapsed in late 1996 were controlled by the ruling Democratic Party, in collusion with the interests of Western banks and the Italian Mafia, who used the programs to launder drug money. VEFA Holdings, the largest pyramid investment funds in Albania, praised by the West as “post-communist model of free enterprise,” played a key role in the privatization plan sponsored by the World Bank and has a huge number of former state enterprises including supermarkets, export and import companies, transportation and manufacturing. Currently, VEFA is investigated in Italy for his ties to the Mafia in Sicily, Calabria and Puglia.
The fraud of the pyramids closely described by Western media as the sole cause of the crisis in Albania, was the result of a much deeper macroeconomic manipulation. The Western supervised financial deregulation led to the transfer of the national banking system. Under the reforms instigated by the IMF and the World Bank and initiated in 1992, early in the administration of President Berisha, most large public companies were assigned to forced liquidation or bankruptcy, causing massive unemployment.
Lies and consequences
The crime has become an integral part of the global economic system with social ramifications, economic and geopolitical powerful.
EL Extremo Radical islámico – jihad global
Aunque existe alguna variación a nivel nacional, el Islam sostiene que la mujer vale la mitad que la de un hombre, cualquier hombre. De acuerdo con la ley islámica, una mujer se supone que es visto fuera de la casa sólo tres veces en la vida: al nacer, cuando se casan, y cuando mueren. En el Islam, la mayoría de edad para una niña de 9 años (en función del año lunar, que es de diez días más corto que un año normal). De acuerdo con el gran Jomeini, “el momento más propicio para una chica para casarse es el momento en que la muchacha puede tener su período menstrual por primera vez en la casa de su marido en lugar de el padre de ella.” Un hombre musulmán puede tener cuatro esposas permanentes, y si es de la secta chií, que puede tener tantas esposas temporales (con fechas de caducidad predeterminada) como él quiere. Los hombres que no tienen el dinero para casarse con mujeres creyentes también pueden casarse como esclavas muchos como ellos quieren. Una mujer musulmana debe cumplir con todos los deseos de su esposo de inmediato, y si ella se niega, él tiene el derecho de negar la comida, la vivienda, y todas las necesidades de la vida. Una mujer musulmana puede ser arrestados, golpeados o ejecutados si ella usa maquillaje, medias de nylon, colores brillantes y sobre todo el color rojo. Las mujeres musulmanas no se les permite nadar, esquiar, andar en bicicleta, bailar, aprender a tocar instrumentos musicales, gimnasia práctica, participar en cualquier deporte, y no se les permite ver a hombres hacer deporte. Al igual que todos los musulmanes, las mujeres tienen que rezar cinco veces al día y ayunar un mes de la campaña, sino que además debe cubrirse de la cabeza a los pies de metros de tela negro, es decir, el hiyab (en árabe significa “cubrir” lo que implica un pañuelo en la cabeza o el velo, junto con una plaza gigante de la ropa como monja un hábito, la más extrema burka , que es una-prenda que envuelve todas, o la menos extrema niqab , que es una cabeza simple y parcial de la cara cubierta “. Varios musulmanes organizaciones internacionales de pago” revertir asimilados los musulmanes de otros países para que sus hijas llevan el hijab. rangos de indemnización de $ 600 a $ 1500 al mes, con el propósito de molestar a los no musulmanes y ganar la actual controversia vestimenta islámica , que hace estragos en Europa y en otros lugares. ¿Qué padre puede resistirse a esta oportunidad de ingresos ? por las que parece que aun teniendo privilegios de socialización fuera de los padres no está más allá de extremismo islámico.
En cuanto a la asignación del Corán para tener cuatro esposas, la poligamia (matrimonio o múltiples) es común entre los musulmanes, especialmente los que viven en los Estados Unidos. Se estima que 100.000 estadounidenses musulmanes tienen varias esposas, las esposas adicionales que son inmigrantes ilegales en la mayoría de los casos. La poligamia es muy común entre los menos educados inmigrantes conservadores de África y Asia, pero es menos frecuente entre los musulmanes de clase media del Medio Oriente. La forma en que funciona es que el marido suele venir que en el # 1 que está recibiendo mañana casada con un 2 # (o # 3 y # 4), y la ley estadounidense se elude por uno solo de los matrimonios que se reconoce el derecho civil, mientras los otros se llevan a cabo en las ceremonias religiosas por parte de los imanes que dicen que llevaron a cabo controles adecuados de fondo y los matrimonios del debe de ser reconocido por el Estado. Esto no sienta bien a las autoridades estadounidenses. Por un lado, el esposo generalmente las esposas maltrata extra, compartiendo con ellos nada igual como el ideal islámico dice, ya veces, las esposas adicionales se mantienen en un sótano para limpiar o cocinar. La otra cosa es que, legalmente, estas esposas adicionales son invisibles ya que las autoridades de inmigración no son nunca va a reconocer, y si el esposo es titular de la tarjeta verde, que no puede patrocinador, ni conseguir que el asilo si el marido busca de asilo.
SON DIFERENTES moderados y radicales?
Quizás el más famoso de todos los eruditos y predicadores musulmanes es el jeque Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Ph.D. (Ver perfil del sitio web de ADL , Perfil de la BBC , y perfil de Wikipedia ). Él es un sunita y es considerado un “moderado” en el mundo árabe, probablemente debido a que condenó el 9 / 11 ataques e insta a los musulmanes a orar menos, pero enseña que las mujeres pueden ser terroristas suicidas también (y él está a favor de la mutilación genital femenina) . Su difícil de clasificar “progresistas” las ideas van en contra de su contrario inquebrantable apoyo al terrorismo, como con sus 2.003 fatwa llamando a los ataques contra civiles estadounidenses y su defensa personal de los atentados suicidas como el vehículo perfecto para extender “la democracia de Alá “todo el mundo. Dirige el sitio web de IslamOnline.net de Qatar y es una figura regular en Al-Jazeera con su programa de televisión semanal, la Sharia y la Vida, que atrae a millones de espectadores. Su alcance se hace sentir en todo el mundo a través de su presidencia de la sede en Dublín, Consejo Europeo para el Fatwa y la Investigación, así como otros muchos consejos y comités que preside. A pesar de su popularidad, no deja de tener sus críticos en el mundo árabe. Algunos lo ven como demasiado dogmático y fuera de contacto con el mundo moderno, mientras que otros lo ven como demasiado laxo en muchos temas (cuestiones de menor importancia sobre todo, como si el ser fotografiado está OK). Lo que lo hace popular es que es un predicador articular y buen comunicador. Lo que lo hace famoso es el que predica el mensaje subyacente que une a todas las facciones de los creyentes – que el Islam tiene la respuesta a todos los problemas de la vida.
“Moderado” jeque musulmán Yusuf Qaradawi
El jeque Yusuf Qaradawi emplea a miles de escritores de su página web, programa de televisión, programas de radio, libros, y en casa las cintas de estudio. Él es el más popular, lo que lleva, pensador político islámico en el mundo de hoy. Con el pretexto de estar promoviendo una visión del Islam “moderado”, que en realidad avanza una forma extremista del Islam, que ve todo el mundo como un patio de recreo para los creyentes musulmanes que no tienen que obedecer las leyes, reconocer ninguna frontera, ni respeto nación aduaneras toda la . Incluso se dice que matar a otros musulmanes es aceptable si se hace en nombre de lograr la dominación islámica total del mundo . citan notables: “A través de su infinita sabiduría, Dios ha dado a la debilidad de un arma a los fuertes no tienen y que es su capacidad de convertir sus cuerpos en bombas como los palestinos lo hacen.”
Una de las bien conocidas citas-Qaradawi más al es el siguiente: “Los
podrán tener bombas nucleares, pero tenemos bombas niños, y estas bombas continuará hasta la liberación se logra.” Mark Steyn s interpretación “de esto es que el imán está diciendo : “Gracias al cielo por las niñas, que soplan en la forma más agradable.”
La idea de impulsar los moderados islámicos para reducir el extremismo islámico puede ser un mito. Hay otros ejemplos, además de jeque Qaradawi. Consideremos el caso de Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani , el hombre más rico de Irán, que lo más probable es que el presidente de Irán un día. Se le considera “muy moderado” en comparación con Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, pero una vez que Rafsanjani iraníes imploró a matar a los occidentales (americanos o franceses) dondequiera que podía encontrar porque eran más fáciles de matar a israelíes. Además, considere Hezbolá o Hamas, que han logrado victorias electorales en la política. Uno podría suponer que una vez en el poder político, que tendría sobre el negocio de gobernar (como la forma de rellenar baches en las carreteras), sino que derrochan su tiempo ideando maneras de hacer afirmaciones extravagantes y las demandas contra el mundo occidental y la comunidad internacional . Modera el extremismo de combustible cada vez están más interesados en el fallo que en el gobierno (Cook 2007). Hay una escasez mundial de los musulmanes moderados.
Por último, ¿qué mejor manera de aparecer moderados (para el mundo árabe) que por ser estadounidense radical? Consideremos el caso de Anwar Al-Awlaki , de 39 años de edad, “hombre de paz” pero también “jihadista endurecido” (ver más abajo):
El # 1 más buscados radical en el Mundo
El ciudadano estadounidense por primera vez para hacer la lista de los objetivos aprobados por la CIA para matar, al-Awlaki debe ser considerado el terrorista más peligroso del planeta. Él personalmente no ha matado a nadie, pero su personalidad magnética y la oratoria excelente (que es bilingüe en Inglés y árabe) ha atraído a decenas de jóvenes musulmanes en complots terroristas. presupuesto de la muestra: “La Jihad es tan estadounidense como el pastel de manzana.” Él es conocido como el Bin Laden de la Internet. Antes, cuando predicaba en los EE.UU., fue asesor espiritual de dos 9.11 secuestradores. Desde su escondite de al-Qaeda en Yemen (desde 2004), que estaba en contacto por e-mail con los pies. tirador Hood, el mayor Nidal Malik Hasan, y ha sido el entrenador o inspiración para otros, como el bombardero Times Square en mayo de 2010. Sus principios no-yihadista de CD-ROM se encuentran en casi todos los hogares musulmanes, que es todo a través de YouTube y Facebook, y su blog es muy popular. funcionarios de EE.UU. creen que ha cruzado la línea de “conspirar inspiración” a “operativo trazado.” Él es el reclutador de talentos senior de al-Qaeda. Él está muy protegido por las fuerzas tribales en Yemen.
Hoy hay un terrorista menos, el terrorista nº 1, pero con su desaparición no termina, pues los terroristas, solo son los que hacen lo planificado a ciertas condiciones, de necesidad, por unos métodos los de ser los actores participantes de una película que a través de un guionista, y el director pone en escena, por tanto son simples actores, pero sus actos se tipifican de delito tanto interno como externo pues sus incidentes provocados tanto internamente como externamente y en cualquier país, en su metodología, planificación, armamento, explosivos, estadística, financiación, etc, incumplen la ley y cometen delitos porque su organización, primaria y secundaria, y logística, incumplen hoy todo tipo de delito, por esto se les persigue, detiene juzga y en otros casos mueren, pero son conscientes de que son negocio sobre todo los franquiciados que con sus acciones, de todo tipo consiguen grandes beneficios.
Estaremos vigilantes, pero a medio plazo, la balanza se inclinara al lado de la Justicia, la Paz, la democracia, las humanidades y la Justicia social de los pueblos, países y continentes.
true… but ultimately, like the how a wise man once said: Corruption never has been compulsory.
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